Management of recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis as a chronic illness
ABSTRACT For sporadic acute Candida vaginitis, any oral or local antifungal therapy can be used. For women with recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis (RVC), on the other hand, such simple approaches are insufficient, regardless of the product chosen. Instead, RVC should be managed as any other chronic disease and requires long-term, prophylactic, suppressive antifungal treatment. A regimen using individualized, decreasing doses of oral fluconazole (the ReCiDiF regimen) was proven to be highly efficient and offered great comfort to the patients. During this regimen, it is crucial that patients are carefully examined by anamnestic, clinical, microscopic and culture-proven absence of Candida. If a relapse occurs, the medication is adjusted and efforts are taken to find a possible triggering factor for the reactivation of the infection. Care has to be taken not to accumulate 'don't do's', unless the efficiency of a measure has been proven, by trying to eliminate one risk factor at a time for 2 months. Known possible triggers to be kept in mind are (1) antibiotic use, (2) use of specific contraceptives, especially combined contraceptive pills, (3) disturbed glucose metabolism, (4) the use of personal hygienic products, and (5) tight clothing or plastic panty liners. In therapy-resistant cases, non-albicans infection must be ruled out, and alternative therapies should be tried. Boric acid is proven to be efficient in most of these resistant cases, but other non-azoles like amphotericin B, flucytosine, gentian violet, and even caspofungin may have to be tried. As a final remark it has to be said that many patients feel poorly understood and inefficiently managed by many care-givers, increasing their feelings of guilt and sexual inferiority. Therefore, attention has to be given to take the disease seriously, follow strict treatment regimens, and advise precisely and based on individual evidence concerning any possible risk factors for recurrence. In case of therapy-resistant vulvo-vaginitis, reconsider your diagnosis and/or consider referral to specialized therapists.
- SourceAvailable from: Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Despite RVVC being considered a Candida infection that is more dependent on the host characteristics, therapeutics approaches available and able to allow a remission of the symptoms between episodes are antifungal drugs used for a long period of time   . Some authors consider that new therapeutic strategies must be considered for RVVC control   . In addition to the limited number of available antifungal drugs, the restrictions to its use stress the need for the development and validation of new therapeutic strategies exhibiting distinct mechanisms of action and/or evasion of resistance    . "
ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to study the anti-Candida activity of lidocaine and nitroglycerin alone and in combination. Ten Candida strains were included, corresponding to 1 collection type strain (ATCC 10231) and 9 clinical isolates: 4 C. albicans, 2 C. glabrata, 1 C. tropicalis, 1 C. krusei, and 1 C. parapsilosis. The CLSI reference M27-A3 micromethod was used to determine the anti-Candida activity of the drugs alone; minimal inhibitory and lethal concentrations were determined. The classic checkboard technique was used to determine the activity of combined drugs. Lidocaine fungicidal effect was dosedependent. Nitroglycerin exhibited a higher effect. The drugs combination resulted in a reduction of the inhibitory concentration, corresponding to an additive effect. In conclusion, both drugs exhibited an interesting anti-Candida activity. The combination of lidocaine with nitroglycerin was shown to have an additive effect against Candida spp., predicting the interest to include, in the future, these drugs in a new delivery system for the treatment of mucocutaneous candidosis.Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 05/2012; 2012:727248. DOI:10.1155/2012/727248
Article: Persistent vaginitis.BMJ (online) 11/2011; 343:d7314. DOI:10.1136/bmj.d7314 · 16.38 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A higher prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is seen in pregnant women compared with those who are not pregnant. Recurrence is also more common in pregnant women, and therapeutic responses are reduced. In this investigation, 207 vaginal yeast isolates recovered from pregnant women were tested for susceptibility to 13 antifungal drugs and boric acid and through these studies four virulence factors were also determined. The isolates were recovered from vaginal samples of patients with acute VVC [AVVC, (n = 73)], symptomatic recurrent VVC [RVVC, (n = 89)], asymptomatic RVVC (n = 27), and those without signs and symptoms (n = 18). Candida albicans was the most common species found (59.9%), followed by C. glabrata (19.8%), other Candida spp., (19.8%), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.5%). Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed as described in CLSI document M27-A3. Additionally, we examined phospholipase and proteinase production, adhesion to vaginal epithelial cells and hemolytic activity. Notably, the MIC values of Candida spp. isolates derived from patients with VVC were no different from those of the controls (P > 0.05). In addition, Candida isolates derived from patients with AVVC or RVVC produced significantly higher amounts of phospholipase and proteinase compared with the controls (P < 0.05). Antifungal testing and the determination of virulence factors may lead to the effective and prompt treatment of VVC, particularly in pregnant women.Medical mycology: official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology 02/2012; 50(6):585-93. DOI:10.3109/13693786.2012.662597 · 2.26 Impact Factor