Explaining Entropy responses after a noxious stimulus, with or without neuromuscular blocking agents, by means of the raw electroencephalographic and electromyographic characteristics
ABSTRACT Entropy™, an anaesthetic EEG monitoring method, yields two parameters: State Entropy (SE) and Response Entropy (RE). SE reflects the hypnotic level of the patient. RE covers also the EMG-dominant part of the frequency spectrum, reflecting the upper facial EMG response to noxious stimulation. We studied the EEG, EMG, and Entropy values before and after skin incision, and the effect of rocuronium on Entropy and EMG at skin incision during sevoflurane-nitrous oxide (N₂O) anaesthesia.
Thirty-eight patients were anaesthetized with sevoflurane-N₂O or sevoflurane-N₂O-rocuronium. The biosignal was stored and analysed off-line to detect EEG patterns, EMG, and artifacts. The signal, its power spectrum, SE, RE, and RE-SE values were analysed before and after skin incision. The EEG arousal was classified as β (increase in over 8 Hz activity and decrease in under 4 Hz activity with a typical β pattern) or δ (increase in under 4 Hz activity with the characteristic rhythmic δ pattern and a decrease in over 8 Hz activity).
The EEG arousal appeared in 17 of 19 and 15 of 19 patients (NS), and the EMG arousal in 0 of 19 and 13 of 19 patients (P<0.01) with and without rocuronium, respectively. Both β (n=30) and EMG arousals increased SE and RE. The δ arousal (n=2) decreased both SE and RE. A significant increase in RE-SE values was only seen in patients without rocuronium.
During sevoflurane-N₂O anaesthesia, both EEG and EMG arousals were seen. β and δ arousals had opposite effects on the Entropy values. The EMG arousal was abolished by rocuronium at the train of four level 0/4.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Antti J Aho, Mar 24, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Vincent Bonhomme[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Spectral Entropy proposed to monitor the depth of anesthesia includes the State Entropy (SE) computed from the EEG (0.8-32 Hz frequency band), and the Response Entropy (RE) computed from EEG and facial muscles activity (0.5-47 Hz frequency band). We report an unexpected Entropy response to saline spraying at the end of posterior fossa surgery. Six patients undergoing scheduled functional surgery of the posterior fossa were included in this report. They were anesthetized with propofol and remifentanil using TCI and received an intubation dose of rocuronium. At the end of surgery, saline spraying, performed for hemostatic purpose and wreckage elimination, resulted in a sustained increase in RE and SE without hemodynamic modification in four patients, while no change was observed in the two other ones. In one of the responding patients, 0.1 mg kg(-1) rocuronium attenuated the Entropy response. In the two non responders, repetition of spraying or rocuronium administration did not change Entropy value. Recovery from anesthesia was comparable in all patients and none of them complained from awareness. We conclude that Entropy can increase during posterior fossa surgery in non-paralyzed patients. This response probably reflects an increase in facial muscle activity rather than a change in depth of anesthesia, as far as it can be attenuated by a small dose of rocuronium. While this hypothesis requires further investigation, these observations suggest that saline spraying may confound interpretation of Entropy during posterior fossa surgery.Acta anaesthesiologica Belgica 01/2011; 62(2):87-90.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aminophylline accelerates the recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia. We studied the effects of escalating doses of aminophylline on cognitive and clinical recovery after sevoflurane anesthesia. After ethical approval and informed consent, 150 patients scheduled for elective surgery under sevoflurane-fentanyl anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive saline or 2, 3, 4 or 5 mg/kg of aminophylline (n = 30 for each) at the end of anesthesia (T (0)). Short Orientation Memory Concentration Test (SOMCT) scores, entropy values, end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations (EtSevo), times to eyes opening and extubation, respiratory rate (RR) and tidal volume (TV) were recorded. Compared to placebo, patients receiving 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg/kg of aminophylline had higher SOMCT scores [median (25th percentile/75th percentile) 20.6 (19/23), 21.5 (21/22), 24.5 (24-25), 25.5 (25/26), respectively, vs. 13.5 (13/14) at 30 min after extubation, and 24 (22/26), 25 (24/26), 27.5 (27-28), 27.5 (27/28), respectively, vs. 18.5 (18/19) at 45 min after extubation], higher entropy values for the first 10 min after T (0), lower EtSevo for the first 4 min after T (0), shorter times to eyes opening [5 (4.0/6.0), 5 (4.0/6.0), 4 (2.0/5.5), and 4 (2.0/6.0), respectively, vs. 9.8 (8.0/11.0) min], shorter times to extubation, shorter times to home discharge (P < 0.001), and higher RR and larger TV values. Patients who received 4 and 5 mg/kg of aminophylline showed higher SOMCT scores, 6 min shorter times to eyes opening and to extubation, and 58 min shorter times to home discharge. The administration of escalating doses of aminophylline accelerates postoperative cognitive recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia, as measured by the SOMCT, due to increased ventilatory elimination of sevoflurane.Journal of Anesthesia 07/2011; 25(5):648-56. DOI:10.1007/s00540-011-1190-8 · 1.12 Impact Factor
- BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 11/2011; 107(5):822-3. DOI:10.1093/bja/aer311 · 4.35 Impact Factor