The Meniscofemoral Ligaments Influence Lateral Meniscal Motion at the Human Knee Joint
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the meniscofemoral ligaments on lateral meniscal motion during flexion and extension of the human knee joint.
A cadaveric biomechanical study was performed. The effect of meniscofemoral ligament tension on the dynamics of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus was determined by image analysis.
We found that the meniscofemoral ligaments functioned in a reciprocal manner, with the anterior meniscofemoral ligament developing tension with flexion and the posterior meniscofemoral ligament tensioning with extension. Analysis of posterior horn motion showed that the meniscofemoral ligaments caused a medial, superior, and anterior displacement of the posterior horn throughout knee motion, thus increasing the congruity of the posterior meniscal arch and the lateral femoral condyle. There was a significant correlation between meniscofemoral ligament tension and displacement of the posterior meniscal horn (r = 0.76, P < .0001).
Where both meniscofemoral ligaments were present, the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus was subject to a displacing force throughout the range of knee motion tested. The degree of displacement correlated with the magnitude of ligament tension, and its direction was anteromedial and superior.
The findings of this study provide further information on the role of the meniscofemoral ligaments at the human knee joint and may influence decisions regarding the management of ligamentous or lateral meniscal injury.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the posterosuperior popliteomeniscal fascicle (sPMF) and anteroinferior popliteomeniscal fascicle (iPMF) by use of magnetic resonance imaging in control knee joints and joints with recurrent subluxation of the lateral meniscus (RSLM) to determine the incidence of abnormal popliteomeniscal fascicles (PMFs) in these groups. Knee joints were diagnosed with RSLM when there was a history of mechanical locking episodes and when subluxation of the lateral meniscus was recognized on arthroscopy. In this study 238 knee joints were evaluated. The joints were classified into a control group (215 joints), RSLM group (16 joints), and contralateral RSLM group (7 joints). Classification of the sPMF (iPMF) on magnetic resonance imaging was as follows: type I, a tense, low-intensity band ran from the superior (inferior) border of the lateral meniscus to the popliteus tendon; type II, an unclear band ran from the superior (inferior) border of the lateral meniscus; and type III, no band was observed. Types II and III were thought to exhibit abnormal PMFs. The distribution of knee joints among the 3 groups and PMF types was examined. Percentages of abnormal sPMFs and iPMFs were 40% and 26%, respectively, in the control group; 100% and 29%, respectively, in the contralateral RSLM group; and 100% and 100%, respectively, in the RSLM group. A significant difference in the distribution of knee joints by classification of sPMFs was recognized between the control and contralateral RSLM groups (P < .0001). A significant difference in iPMFs was also recognized between the contralateral RSLM and RSLM groups (P = .0005). A significantly high incidence of abnormal sPMFs was found in RSLM and contralateral knees. Thus abnormal sPMFs existed in both knee joints before patients had locking symptoms, suggesting that abnormal sPMFs may be required for locking symptoms. A significantly high incidence of abnormal iPMFs was found only in the knee joints with RSLM. An abnormal iPMF is thus the essential lesion to allow the at-risk lateral meniscus to become unstable beyond the rate of control knees. Level III, case-control study.Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 01/2012; 28(4):507-16. DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2011.08.311 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We compared extrusion of the allograft after medial and lateral meniscal allograft transplantation and examined the correlation between the extent of extrusion and the clinical outcome. A total of 73 lateral and 26 medial meniscus allografts were evaluated by MRI at a mean of 32 months (24 to 59) in 99 patients (67 men, 32 women) with a mean age of 35 years (21 to 52). The absolute values and the proportional widths of extruded menisci as a percentage were measured in coronal images that showed maximum extrusion. Functional assessments were performed using Lysholm scores. The mean extrusion was 4.7 mm (1.8 to 7.7) for lateral menisci and 2.9 mm (1.2 to 6.5) for medial menisci (p < 0.001), and the mean percentage extrusions were 52.0% (23.8% to 81.8%) and 31.2% (11.6% to 63.4%), respectively (p < 0.001). Mean Lysholm scores increased significantly from 49.0 (10 to 83) pre-operatively to 86.6 (33 to 99) at final follow-up for lateral menisci (p = 0.001) and from 50.9 (15 to 88) to 88.3 (32 to 100) for medial menisci (p < 0.001). The final mean Lysholm scores were similar in the two groups (p = 0.312). Furthermore, Lysholm scores were not found to be correlated with degree of extrusion (p = 0.242). Thus, transplanted lateral menisci extrude more significantly than transplanted medial menisci. However, the clinical outcome after meniscal transplantation was not found to be adversely affected by extrusion of the allograft.The Bone & Joint Journal 02/2012; 94(2):190-3. DOI:10.1302/0301-620X.94B2.27914 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Translation during knee flexion is a key function of the menisci. The amount of translation displayed by the medial and lateral meniscus during knee flexion, particularly while loadbearing, remains relatively unknown. To address this lack of knowledge, a systematic review of the relevant literature was performed. METHODS: We performed a literature search for studies in which a primary aim was to report the anterior-posterior translation of the menisci during knee flexion. Data were collected on the characteristics of the sample, the imaging approach, measurement and analysis techniques, and outcome variables. We scored the quality of studies and their reporting using a modified Coleman methodology score with ten criteria, with a maximum possible score of 100. RESULTS: Twelve full-text studies were retrieved that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, the in vitro studies (N = 4) scored the lowest for methodology (median 44.5), with in vivo studies of healthy knees (N = 4) (median 60) and in vivo comparative studies (N = 4) scoring highest (median 74.5). The evidence from studies with the highest methodology scores (>65) (N = 4) indicate that the lateral meniscus translates more posteriorly than the medial meniscus during flexion. In addition, meniscal translation is influenced by loading, particularly in knee rotation, but not by ACL deficiency, despite greater posterior translation of the medial femoral condyle during flexion. CONCLUSIONS: The generally low methodological quality of studies suggests that caution is required when interpreting meniscal translation during knee flexion reported in the literature. While the methods for assessing meniscal translation in vivo continue to improve and provide opportunity for clinical implementation, there remains a lack of robust evidence regarding meniscal translation in the healthy knee for comparative purposes. A number of recommendations are made for future studies to address key limitations identified in previous investigations. Additional studies of high methodological quality are required to quantify the relationships between joint loading, joint pathology and meniscal translation during knee flexion. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 04/2013; 23(1). DOI:10.1007/s00167-013-2482-3 · 2.84 Impact Factor