Capecitabine for skin cancer prevention in solid organ transplant recipients.
ABSTRACT Skin cancers are the most common malignancies in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR). A case-observational, retrospective study was performed to determine the efficacy of low-dose capecitabine in the secondary prevention of skin cancers in SOTRs treated at a single institution. SOTRs with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and/or basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were given low-dose capecitabine 1 g/m(2) daily, days 1-14 of a 21-d treatment cycle. Skin surveillance was performed by dermatologists every 1-3 months. Cumulative incidence rates of SCC, BCC, and actinic keratosis (AK) before and after treatment were scored and statistically compared for each patient using a non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Fifteen patients (13 men and two women) with a median age of 57 yr (range 40-73) were treated. Incidence rates as measured by mean number of events per month declined by 0.33 for SCC, 0.04 for BCC, and 2.45 for AK (p < 0.05). The most common grade 3 and 4 toxicities included fatigue (40.0%), hand-foot syndrome (20.0%), and diarrhea (20.0%). The discontinuation rate at one yr was approximately 33.3%. We conclude that oral capecitabine significantly decreases the incidence rates of recurrent SCC, BCC, and AK in SOTRs and is associated with manageable toxicity.