Uterine artery Doppler and prediction of preeclampsia.
ABSTRACT Identifying patients at risk for preeclampsia would allow an increase in perinatal surveillance and possibly decrease the inherent maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality associated with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia. First and second trimester uterine artery Doppler velocimetry is a sensitive screening tool for the detection of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) requiring delivery before 34 weeks. The performance of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry as a screening test depends on the prevalence of the adverse outcome in the studied population and whether the adverse outcomes are assessed individually or collectively as a group. Future research in this area should focus on identification of additional markers that may be incorporated into a prediction model for early identification of patients at risk for adverse outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: The placental dysfunction, which seems to be caused by a defect of trophoblastic invasion and impaired uterine vascular remodeling since the first trimester, is responsible in a non-exclusive way for the chronic placental hypoxia, resulting secondarily in the intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) and/or pre-eclampsia (PE). The quality of utero-placental vasculature is essential for a proper fetal development and a successful progress of pregnancy. However, the in vivo assessment of placental vascularization with non-invasive methods is complicated by the small size of placental terminal vessel and its complex architecture. Moreover, imaging with contrast agent is not recommended to pregnant women. Until recently, the fetal and maternal vascularization could only be evaluated through pulse Doppler of uterine arteries during pregnancy, which has little clinical value for utero-placental vascularization defects assessment. Recently, a non-invasive study, without use of contrast agent for vasculature evaluation of an organ of interest has become possible by the development of 3D Doppler angiography technique. The objective of this review was to make an inventory of its current and future applications for utero-placental vasculature quantification. The main findings of the literature on the assessment of utero-placental vascularization in physiological situation and major placental vascular dysfunction pathologies such as PE and IUGR were widely discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the predictive values of mid-trimester serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for preterm and term placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcomes (PMAPOs). Methods: We extracted data for nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy without aneuploidy or lethal fetal anomalies from a prospective cohort study. Maternal serum AFP and hCG measured between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation and expressed as multiples of the median (MoM) for gestational age were compared between women who developed a PMAPO (preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal death) before term or at term and women who did not develop any of these complications. Results: Among 3466 nulliparous women, maternal serum AFP and hCG levels were available in 2110 and 2125 cases, respectively. Women who developed a PMAPO before term had a higher median level of serum AFP (1.4 vs. 1.1 MoM; P < 0.01) and hCG (1.3 vs. 1.1 MoM; P < 0.01) than controls. A serum hCG > 2.0 MoM was associated with a higher risk of PMAPO before term (RR 4.6; CI 95% 2.3 to 9.1) but had no impact on the risk of PMAPO at term (RR 1.1; CI 95% 0.7 to 1.7). Maternal serum AFP > 2.0 MoM was also associated with a significant increase in the risk of preterm PMAPO (RR 3.9; CI 95% 1.6 to 9.8) but not term PMAPO (RR 1.2; CI 95% 0.6 to 2.3). Conclusion: Maternal serum AFP or hCG > 2.0 MoM increases the risk of preterm PMAPO but not term PMAPO in our population. We suggest that women with elevated serum AFP or hCG should receive standard pregnancy care once they have reached 37 weeks of gestation if fetal growth is in the normal range.
- 01/2014; 24(1). DOI:10.5935/2238-3182.20140016