Upfront immunization with autologous recombinant idiotype Fab fragment without prior cytoreduction in indolent B-cell lymphoma

Department of Hematology/Oncology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 11/2010; 117(5):1483-91. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-06-292342
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Idiotype vaccination for follicular lymphoma is primarily being developed as remission consolidation after chemotherapy. We investigated idiotype vaccination as primary intervention for treatment-naive indolent B-cell lymphoma and in a separate cohort as remission consolidation after chemotherapy to assess immunization-induced immune responses in relation to progression-free survival (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00000227). Twenty-one patients in each cohort received 6 intradermal injections of adjuvanted recombinant idiotype Fab fragment (Fab(Id)); 76% of patients in both groups developed anti-idiotype antibodies and/or cellular immunity as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and interferon-γ ELISpot. In treatment-naive patients, only cellular responses correlated with superior progression-free survival (P < .002) and durable objective remissions (P = .04). Immunization-induced T cells recognized hypermutated or complementarity-determining region 3 epitopes. After remission consolidation immunization, induction of anti-idiotype antibodies correlated with progression-free survival. Low B-cell counts after rituximab therapy predicted for failure to develop anti-idiotype antibodies. These results are similar to published trials showing an association of humoral immunity with control of residual lymphoma. In contrast, effective immunity against untreated lymphoma appears to be dependent on idiotype-specific T cells. Sustained remissions in patients with vaccination-induced cellular immunity suggest clinical benefit and warrant a randomized comparison of this vaccine with expectant management for asymptomatic follicular lymphoma.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunotherapeutic strategies are promising approaches for the treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL). However, their efficacy may be limited by immunosuppressive elements in the immune system and tumor microenvironment. Therefore, strategies to reverse the effects of the immunosuppressive elements are needed. We observed that regulatory T cells (Tregs) were increased in the peripheral blood at diagnosis and persisted in high numbers after induction of clinical remission with a cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy regimen in FL patients. High levels of peripheral blood Tregs prior to therapy were associated with decreased progression-free survival in FL patients treated with either chemotherapy or combination immunotherapy that targeted CD20 and PD-1 with monoclonal antibodies rituximab and pidilizumab, respectively. Intratumoral and peripheral blood Tregs potently suppressed autologous antitumor effector T cells in FL. However, the effects of FL Tregs could be reversed by triggering Toll-like receptors (TLR) with TLR ligands Pam3CSK4 (TLR 1/2), flagellin (TLR 5), and CpG-B (TLR 9), and/or OX40. The TLR ligands synergized with each other as well as OX40 signaling to inhibit Tregs. Furthermore, they restored the function of FL tumor-specific effector T cells. Our results suggest that a state of tolerance exists in FL patients at diagnosis and after induction of clinical remission, and agents that activate TLRs 1/2, 5, and 9, and OX40 may serve as adjuvants to enhance the efficacy of antitumor immunotherapeutic strategies and preventive vaccines against infectious diseases in these patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 12/2014; 135(12). DOI:10.1002/ijc.28937 · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroundMultiple myeloma is characterized by clonal expansion of B cells producing monoclonal immunoglobulins or fragments thereof, which can be detected in the serum and/or urine and are ideal target antigens for patient-specific immunotherapies.MethodsUsing phage particles as immunological carriers, we employed a novel chemically linked idiotype vaccine in a clinical phase I/II trial including 15 patients with advanced multiple myeloma. Vaccines composed of purified paraproteins linked to phage were manufactured successfully for each patient. Patients received six intradermal immunizations with phage idiotype vaccines in three different dose groups.ResultsPhage idiotype was well tolerated by all study participants. A subset of patients (80% in the middle dose group) displayed a clinical response indicated by decrease or stabilization of paraprotein levels. Patients exhibiting a clinical response to phage vaccines also raised idiotype-specific immunoglobulins. Induction of a cellular immune response was demonstrated by a cytotoxicity assay and delayed type hypersensitivity tests.ConclusionWe present a simple, time- and cost-efficient phage idiotype vaccination strategy, which represents a safe and feasible patient-specific therapy for patients with advanced multiple myeloma and produced promising anti-tumor activity in a subset of patients.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 05/2014; 12(1):119. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-12-119 · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic idiotypic (Id) vaccination is an experimental treatment for selected B cell malignancies. A broader use of Id-based vaccination, however, is hampered by the complexity and costs due to the individualized production of protein vaccines. These limitations may be overcome by targeted DNA vaccines encoding stereotyped immunoglobulin V regions of B cell malignancies. We have here investigated whether such vaccines might elicit cross-reactive immune responses thus offering the possibility to immunize subsets of patients with the same vaccine.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 07/2014; 12(1):207. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-12-207 · 3.99 Impact Factor