Patterns of body size and adiposity among UK children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin: Child Heart & Health Study in England (CHASE Study)

Division of Community Health Sciences, St George's, University of London, London, UK.
International Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 9.2). 11/2010; 40(1):33-44. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyq180
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine adiposity patterns in UK South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European children using a range of adiposity markers. A cross-sectional survey in London, Birmingham and Leicester primary schools was conducted. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thickness values (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) were measured. Fat mass was derived from bioimpedance; optimally height-standardized indices were derived for all adiposity markers. Ethnic origin was based on parental self-report. Multilevel models were used to obtain adjusted means and ethnic differences adjusted for gender, age, month, observer and school (fitted as a random effect). A total of 5887 children aged 9-10 years participated (response rate 68%), including 1345 white Europeans, 1523 South Asians and 1570 black African-Caribbeans.
Compared with white Europeans, South Asians had a higher sum of all skinfolds and fat mass percentage, and their body mass index (BMI) was lower. South Asians were slightly shorter but use of optimally height-standardized indices did not materially affect these comparisons. At any given fat mass, BMI was lower in South Asians than white Europeans. In similar comparisons, black African-Caribbeans had a lower sum of all skinfolds but a higher fat mass percentage, and their BMI was higher. Black African-Caribbeans were markedly taller. Use of optimally height-standardized indices yielded markedly different findings; sum of skinfolds index was markedly lower, whereas fat mass index and weight-for-height index were similar. At any given fat mass, BMI was similar in black African-Caribbeans and white Europeans.
UK South Asian children have higher adiposity levels and black African-Caribbeans have similar or lower adiposity levels when compared with white Europeans. However, these differences are not well represented by comparisons based on BMI, which systematically underestimates adiposity in South Asians, and in black African-Caribbeans it overestimates adiposity because of its association with height.

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Available from: Claire Nightingale, Jul 27, 2015
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    • "The BIA is safe, non-invasive, rapid, relatively inexpensive, and suitable for large-scale epidemiologic studies. The BIA also was used for the measurement of body composition in other studies in school-aged children [30] [31]. 7. The information on the socioeconomic status of the children was not obtained in this study. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and its association with adiposity, inflammation and oxidative stress in school children. Methods A total of 1488 school children aged 7-11 years were recruited in Harbin, China (latitude: 44°04′N - 46°40′N) in May. Serum 25(OH)D which is an indicator of vitamin D status was determined. Anthropometric data were collected following general physical examinations. Serum lipids, glucose metabolism indices, inflammatory molecules and oxidative stress markers were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were also assessed. Results The median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 18.4 ng/mL. Of 1488 school children included, 839 (56.4%) had vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL]. Children in the vitamin D deficiency group had significantly higher body weight (34.1±3.8 vs. 31.5±3.3 kg, P < 0.001), body mass index (18.4±2.2 vs. 16.8±1.7 kg/m2, P < 0.001), waist circumference (60.1±8.5 vs. 57.2±7.7 cm, P < 0.001) and percentage of body fat (20.2±2.6 vs. 19.1±2.4 %, P < 0.001), and significantly lower concentrations of serum superoxide dismutase (95.38±12.22 vs. 127.62±15.98 U/mL, P < 0.001) compared to those in the vitamin D sufficiency group. After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index and percentage of body fat, a positive association between serum 25(OH)D and superoxide dismutase was found (β = 0.230, P < 0.001). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is common in Harbin school children. Serum 25(OH)D is closely associated with adiposity and superoxide dismutase in school children, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency potentially increases the risk of diseases caused by higher adiposity and oxidative stress.
    Nutrition 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2014.02.024 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    • "Childhood obesity has been increasing over the years [1] [2] and requires regular appraisal of the appropriateness of formulas for calculation of weight from age. The child heart and health study in England (CHASE study) has found differences in adiposity levels in different ethnic groups with South Asian children having higher obesity levels compared with Caucasian children [3]. In an Asian population in Karnataka, India, the formula used by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC formula, former APLS formula) overestimated the weight by at least 2-3 kg in children one to twelve years of age [4]. "
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    10/2012; 2012:869634. DOI:10.5402/2012/869634
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    • "Nightingale et al. (2011) found that fat mass index was highest in Bangladeshis, intermediate in Pakistanis and lowest in children of Indian origin, coinciding with relative risk of Type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease in these groups (Bhopal et al., 1999). There is much less evidence of a consistent difference between South Asian and white children in waist circumference or body mass index (Balakrishnan et al., 2008; Ehtisham et al., 2005; Harding et al., 2008; Nightingale et al., 2011; Saxena et al., 2004; Whincup et al., 2005). "
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