Article

Patterns of body size and adiposity among UK children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin: Child Heart And health Study in England (CHASE Study).

Division of Community Health Sciences, St George's, University of London, London, UK.
International Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 6.98). 11/2010; 40(1):33-44. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyq180
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine adiposity patterns in UK South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European children using a range of adiposity markers. A cross-sectional survey in London, Birmingham and Leicester primary schools was conducted. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thickness values (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) were measured. Fat mass was derived from bioimpedance; optimally height-standardized indices were derived for all adiposity markers. Ethnic origin was based on parental self-report. Multilevel models were used to obtain adjusted means and ethnic differences adjusted for gender, age, month, observer and school (fitted as a random effect). A total of 5887 children aged 9-10 years participated (response rate 68%), including 1345 white Europeans, 1523 South Asians and 1570 black African-Caribbeans.
Compared with white Europeans, South Asians had a higher sum of all skinfolds and fat mass percentage, and their body mass index (BMI) was lower. South Asians were slightly shorter but use of optimally height-standardized indices did not materially affect these comparisons. At any given fat mass, BMI was lower in South Asians than white Europeans. In similar comparisons, black African-Caribbeans had a lower sum of all skinfolds but a higher fat mass percentage, and their BMI was higher. Black African-Caribbeans were markedly taller. Use of optimally height-standardized indices yielded markedly different findings; sum of skinfolds index was markedly lower, whereas fat mass index and weight-for-height index were similar. At any given fat mass, BMI was similar in black African-Caribbeans and white Europeans.
UK South Asian children have higher adiposity levels and black African-Caribbeans have similar or lower adiposity levels when compared with white Europeans. However, these differences are not well represented by comparisons based on BMI, which systematically underestimates adiposity in South Asians, and in black African-Caribbeans it overestimates adiposity because of its association with height.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
102 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: there is no database or local norms for the physical performance of Malaysian rugby players. This database or norms are vital for Malaysian's sports development as programs can be setup to improve the current status. This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the status of our semi professional rugby players. The rugby players were randomly selected from the Malaysian National team and several clubs in the Klang valley, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. 54 male rugby players (Age: 24.41 ± 4.06 years) were selected for this pilot study. Height, bodyweight, percentage body fat and body mass index (BMI) and several other physical tests were performed. Results from the BLEEP test revealed an average of level 9, shuttle 2 for the players. Interestingly, forwards were taller, heavier, and had lower maximal aerobic power than backs in the same team. In conclusion, the physical characteristics of the rugby players were much lower when compared to international players from other countries. From this pilot study, the physical performance of the Malaysian team must be improved in order to further develop the sports.
    03/2011;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: there is no database or local norms for the physical performance of Malaysian rugby players. This database or norms are vital for Malaysian's sports development as programs can be setup to improve the current status. This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the status of our semi professional rugby players. The rugby players were randomly selected from the Malaysian National team and several clubs in the Klang valley, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. 54 male rugby players (Age: 24.41 ± 4.06 years) were selected for this pilot study. Height, bodyweight, percentage body fat and body mass index (BMI) and several other physical tests were performed. Results from the BLEEP test revealed an average of level 9, shuttle 2 for the players. Interestingly, forwards were taller, heavier, and had lower maximal aerobic power than backs in the same team. In conclusion, the physical characteristics of the rugby players were much lower when compared to international players from other countries. From this pilot study, the physical performance of the Malaysian team must be improved in order to further develop the sports.
    02/2011;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With approximately 1.5 billion people at risk, the staggeringly high risk of Type 2 diabetes in South Asians comprises a global problem. The causes of this high risk are complex, with 23 major risk factors identified in a Lancet seminar. This paper proposes a four‐stage explanatory model: (1) the birth of a small, adipose, lowlean mass South Asian baby—the phenotype tracking through life; (2) in childhood and early adulthood, the deposition of any excess energy intake preferentially in upper body and ectopic fat stores rather than in the lower body or superficial subcutaneous fat stores; (3) as a consequence of points 1 and 2, and exacerbated by an environment of low physical activity and excess calories, the accelerated appearance of high levels of plasma insulin, triglycerides and glucose, and the fatty‐liver vicious cycle; (4) β‐cell failure as a result of fewer β‐cells at birth, exposure to apoptotic triggers such as fat in the pancreas, and high demand from insulin resistance, which causes diabetes. Other risk factors—especially energy‐dense hyperglycaemic diet and low physical activity—play into this pathway. The recommended behavioural changes fit with this model, which brings clarity to guide future research, policy, practice and health promotion.
    Diabetic Medicine 01/2013; 30(1). · 3.24 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
5 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014