ERK/ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) signaling positively regulates death receptor 5 expression through co-activation of CHOP and Elk1.
ABSTRACT Death receptor 5 (DR5) is a death domain-containing transmembrane receptor that triggers apoptosis upon binding to its ligand or when overexpressed. Its expression is induced by certain small molecule drugs, including celecoxib, through mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. The current study has revealed a novel ERK/ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)-dependent mechanism that regulates DR5 expression primarily using celecoxib as a DR5 inducer. Both C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and Elk1 are required for celecoxib-induced DR5 expression based on promoter deletion and mutation analysis and siRNA-mediated gene silencing results. Co-expression of both CHOP and Elk1 exhibited enhanced effects on increasing DR5 promoter activity and DR5 expression, indicating that CHOP and Elk1 co-operatively regulate DR5 expression. Because Elk1 is an ERK-regulated protein, we accordingly found that celecoxib increased the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2, RSK2, and Elk1. Inhibition of either ERK signaling with a MEK inhibitor or ERK1/2 siRNA, or RSK2 signaling with an RSK2 inhibitor or RSK2 siRNA abrogated DR5 up-regulation by celecoxib as well as other agents. Moreover, these inhibitions suppressed celecoxib-induced CHOP up-regulation. Thus, ERK/RSK-dependent, CHOP and Elk1-mediated mechanisms are critical for DR5 induction. Additionally, celecoxib increased CHOP promoter activity in an ATF4-dependent manner, and siRNA-mediated blockade of ATF4 abrogated both CHOP induction and DR5 up-regulation, indicating that ATF4 is involved in celecoxib-induced CHOP and DR5 expression. Collectively, we conclude that small molecules such as celecoxib induce DR5 expression through activating ERK/RSK signaling and subsequent Elk1 activation and ATF4-dependent CHOP induction.
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ABSTRACT: Jellyfish eggs neither undergo apparent cortical reaction nor show any significant change in the membrane potential at fertilization, but nevertheless show monospermy. Utilizing the perfectly transparent eggs of the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae, here we show that the polyspermy block is accomplished via a novel mechanism: a collaboration between Ca(2+) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In Cytaeis, adhesion of a sperm to the animal pole surface of an egg was immediately followed by sperm-egg fusion and initiation of an intracellular Ca(2+) rise from this site. The elevated Ca(2+) levels lasted for several minutes following the sperm-egg fusion. The Ca(2+) rise proved to be necessary and sufficient for a polyspermy block, as inhibiting a Ca(2+) rise with EGTA promoted polyspermy, and conversely, triggering a Ca(2+) rise by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) or excess K(+) immediately abolished the egg's capacity for sperm-egg fusion. A Ca(2+) rise at fertilization or by artificial stimulations evoked dephosphorylation of MAPK in eggs. The eggs in which phosphorylated MAPK was maintained by injection of mRNA for MAPK kinase kinase (Mos), like intact eggs, exhibited a Ca(2+) rise at fertilization or by IP3 injection, and shut down the subsequent sperm-egg fusion. However, the Mos-expressing eggs became capable of accepting sperm following the arrest of Ca(2+) rise. In contrast, addition of inhibitors of MAPK kinase (MEK) to unfertilized eggs caused MAPK dephosphorylation without elevating Ca(2+) levels, and prevented sperm-egg fusion. Rephosphorylation of MAPK by injecting Mos mRNA after fertilization recovered sperm attraction, which is known to be another MAPK-dependent event, but did not permit subsequent sperm-egg fusion. Thus, it is possible that MAPK dephosphorylation irreversibly blocks sperm-egg fusion and reversibly suppresses sperm attraction. Collectively, our data suggest that both the fast and late mechanisms dependent on Ca(2+) and MAPK, respectively, ensure a polyspermy block in jellyfish eggs.Developmental Biology 05/2014; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Selective killing of cancer cells is one of the major goals of cancer therapy. Although chemotherapeutic agents are being used for cancer treatment, they lack selectivity toward tumor cells. Among the six different death receptors (DRs) identified to date, DR4 and DR5 are selectively expressed on cancer cells. Therefore, unlike chemotherapeutic agents, these receptors can potentially mediate selective killing of tumor cells. In this review we outline various nutraceuticals derived from ‘Mother Nature’ that can upregulate DRs and thus potentiate apoptosis. These nutraceuticals increase tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis of cancer cells through different mechanisms. First, nutraceuticals have been found to induce DRs through the upregulation of various signaling molecules. Second, nutraceuticals can downregulate tumor cell-survival pathways. Third, nutraceuticals alone have been found to activate cell-death pathways. Although both TRAIL and agonistic antibodies against DR4 and DR5 are in clinical trials, combination with nutraceuticals is likely to boost their anticancer potential.Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 10/2014; · 9.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. However, development of resistance to TRAIL is a major obstacle to more effective cancer treatment. Therefore, novel pharmacological agents that enhance sensitivity to TRAIL are necessary. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which ilimaquinone isolated from a sea sponge sensitizes human colon cancer cells to TRAIL. Ilimaquinone pretreatment significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT 116 cells and sensitized colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through increased caspase-8, -3 activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA damage. Ilimaquinone also reduced the cell survival proteins Bcl2 and Bcl-xL, while strongly up-regulating death receptor (DR) 4 and DR5 expression. Induction of DR4 and DR5 by ilimaquinone was mediated through up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). The up-regulation of CHOP, DR4 and DR5 expression was mediated through activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Finally, the generation of ROS was required for CHOP and DR5 up-regulation by ilimaquinone. These results demonstrate that ilimaquinone enhanced the sensitivity of human colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through ROS-ERK/p38 MAPK-CHOP-mediated up-regulation of DR4 and DR5 expression, suggesting that ilimaquinone could be developed into an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug.Food and Chemical Toxicology 06/2014; 71. · 2.61 Impact Factor