ERK/ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) signaling positively regulates death receptor 5 expression through co-activation of CHOP and Elk1
ABSTRACT Death receptor 5 (DR5) is a death domain-containing transmembrane receptor that triggers apoptosis upon binding to its ligand or when overexpressed. Its expression is induced by certain small molecule drugs, including celecoxib, through mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. The current study has revealed a novel ERK/ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)-dependent mechanism that regulates DR5 expression primarily using celecoxib as a DR5 inducer. Both C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and Elk1 are required for celecoxib-induced DR5 expression based on promoter deletion and mutation analysis and siRNA-mediated gene silencing results. Co-expression of both CHOP and Elk1 exhibited enhanced effects on increasing DR5 promoter activity and DR5 expression, indicating that CHOP and Elk1 co-operatively regulate DR5 expression. Because Elk1 is an ERK-regulated protein, we accordingly found that celecoxib increased the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2, RSK2, and Elk1. Inhibition of either ERK signaling with a MEK inhibitor or ERK1/2 siRNA, or RSK2 signaling with an RSK2 inhibitor or RSK2 siRNA abrogated DR5 up-regulation by celecoxib as well as other agents. Moreover, these inhibitions suppressed celecoxib-induced CHOP up-regulation. Thus, ERK/RSK-dependent, CHOP and Elk1-mediated mechanisms are critical for DR5 induction. Additionally, celecoxib increased CHOP promoter activity in an ATF4-dependent manner, and siRNA-mediated blockade of ATF4 abrogated both CHOP induction and DR5 up-regulation, indicating that ATF4 is involved in celecoxib-induced CHOP and DR5 expression. Collectively, we conclude that small molecules such as celecoxib induce DR5 expression through activating ERK/RSK signaling and subsequent Elk1 activation and ATF4-dependent CHOP induction.
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- "Inhibition of the IRE1a/XBP1 arm of the stress response enhanced both celecoxib and (celecoxib þ sildenafil) lethality whereas inhibition of the eIF2a/ATF4/CHOP arm of the response protected cells. Celecoxib at 10-fold higher levels, through an eIF2a/ATF4/CHOP pathway, has been proposed to increase expression of the death receptor DR5 (Oh et al., 2010). Others have shown celecoxib to increase CD95 levels (Kern et al., 2006). "
ABSTRACT: The present studies determined whether clinically relevant phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors interacted with a clinically relevant NSAID, celecoxib, to kill tumor cells. Celecoxib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to kill multiple tumor cell types. Celecoxib and sildenafil killed ex vivo primary human glioma cells as well as their associated activated microglia. Knock down of PDE5 recapitulated the effects of PDE5 inhibitor treatment; the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME suppressed drug combination toxicity. The effects of celecoxib were COX2 independent. Over-expression of c-FLIP-s or knock down of CD95/FADD significantly reduced killing by the drug combination. CD95 activation was dependent on nitric oxide and ceramide signaling. CD95 signaling activated the JNK pathway and inhibition of JNK suppressed cell killing. The drug combination inactivated mTOR and increased the levels of autophagy and knock down of Beclin1 or ATG5 strongly suppressed killing by the drug combination. The drug combination caused an ER stress response; knock down of IRE1α/XBP1 enhanced killing whereas knock down of eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP suppressed killing. Sildenafil and celecoxib treatment suppressed the growth of mammary tumors in vivo. Collectively our data demonstrate that clinically achievable concentrations of celecoxib and sildenafil have the potential to be a new therapeutic approach for cancer. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Physiology 10/2014; 230(5). DOI:10.1002/jcp.24843 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A clear, overall picture of virtual character dynamic based motion generation and control methods is provided, which has a beneficial reference to the further research in this area. This survey concentrates on two core parts in dynamic motion control: how to build the dynamic simulator and how to establish the controller to realize various tasks. In the end, the future directions of research in this area are presented.
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ABSTRACT: Pemetrexed is a clinically available anti-folate therapeutic agent used in combination with cisplatin for the management of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Pemetrexed inhibits three enzymes in purine and pyrimidine synthesis necessary for precursor DNA nucleotides which in turn disrupts growth and survival of normal and cancer cells. The mechanism by which pemetrexed induces apoptosis remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study, we examined the downstream effect of pemetrexed in inducing apoptosis in lung cancer cells. We showed that pemetrexed induced apoptosis via up-regulation of Death Receptor 5 (DR5), an important death receptor for tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). In addition, we discovered a synergistic effect of combination pemetrexed and recombinant TRAIL in inducing apoptosis. Modulating DR5 induction by small interfering RNA abrogated the ability of pemetrexed to induce apoptosis. In addition, silencing of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression reduced DR5 expression, demonstrating that the transcriptional factor CHOP has a pivotal role on DR5 up-regulation following pemetrexed treatment. In addition, enforced expression of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), a known inhibitor of caspase 8, protected neoplastic cells from apoptosis despite pemetrexed and/or TRAIL therapy. Thus, our findings demonstrate the efficacy and mechanistic underpinnings of pemetrexed-induced apoptosis, and they suggest pemetrexed may have clinical utility when used in combination with TRAIL for the management of patients with lung cancer.European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 07/2011; 47(16):2471-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2011.06.003 · 4.82 Impact Factor