Death receptor 5 (DR5) is a death domain-containing transmembrane receptor that triggers apoptosis upon binding to its ligand or when overexpressed. Its expression is induced by certain small molecule drugs, including celecoxib, through mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. The current study has revealed a novel ERK/ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)-dependent mechanism that regulates DR5 expression primarily using celecoxib as a DR5 inducer. Both C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and Elk1 are required for celecoxib-induced DR5 expression based on promoter deletion and mutation analysis and siRNA-mediated gene silencing results. Co-expression of both CHOP and Elk1 exhibited enhanced effects on increasing DR5 promoter activity and DR5 expression, indicating that CHOP and Elk1 co-operatively regulate DR5 expression. Because Elk1 is an ERK-regulated protein, we accordingly found that celecoxib increased the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2, RSK2, and Elk1. Inhibition of either ERK signaling with a MEK inhibitor or ERK1/2 siRNA, or RSK2 signaling with an RSK2 inhibitor or RSK2 siRNA abrogated DR5 up-regulation by celecoxib as well as other agents. Moreover, these inhibitions suppressed celecoxib-induced CHOP up-regulation. Thus, ERK/RSK-dependent, CHOP and Elk1-mediated mechanisms are critical for DR5 induction. Additionally, celecoxib increased CHOP promoter activity in an ATF4-dependent manner, and siRNA-mediated blockade of ATF4 abrogated both CHOP induction and DR5 up-regulation, indicating that ATF4 is involved in celecoxib-induced CHOP and DR5 expression. Collectively, we conclude that small molecules such as celecoxib induce DR5 expression through activating ERK/RSK signaling and subsequent Elk1 activation and ATF4-dependent CHOP induction.
"Inhibition of the IRE1a/XBP1 arm of the stress response enhanced both celecoxib and (celecoxib þ sildenafil) lethality whereas inhibition of the eIF2a/ATF4/CHOP arm of the response protected cells. Celecoxib at 10-fold higher levels, through an eIF2a/ATF4/CHOP pathway, has been proposed to increase expression of the death receptor DR5 (Oh et al., 2010). Others have shown celecoxib to increase CD95 levels (Kern et al., 2006). "
"Transfection was done using Lipofectamine 2000CD (Invitrogen) and the mix was prepared in siRNA transfection medium (Santa Cruz Biotechnology). siRNA targeting RRAD and CLEC3B were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, ATF siRNA  was synthesized from Eurofins MWG and Mission Universal negative control siRNA 1 was procured from Sigma. CLEC3B siRNA was used at final concentration of 40 nM while others were used at 80 nM. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) present in the bone marrow are the precursors of osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes, and hold tremendous potential for osteoregenerative therapy. However, achieving directed differentiation into osteoblasts has been a major concern. The use of lithium for enhancing osteogenic differentiation has been documented in animal models but its effect in humans is not clear. We, therefore, performed high throughput transcriptome analysis of lithium-treated hMSCs to identify altered gene expression and its relevance to osteogenic differentiation. Our results show suppression of proliferation and enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity upon lithium treatment of hMSCs under non-osteogenic conditions. Microarray profiling of lithium-stimulated hMSC revealed decreased expression of adipogenic genes (CEBPA, CMKLR1, HSD11B1) and genes involved in lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, osteoclastogenic factors and immune responsive genes (IL7, IL8, CXCL1, CXCL12, CCL20) were also downregulated. Negative transcriptional regulators of the osteogenic program (TWIST1 and PBX1) were suppressed while genes involved in mineralization like CLEC3B and ATF4 were induced. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment of upregulated genes related to mesenchymal cell differentiation and signal transduction. Lithium priming led to enhanced collagen 1 synthesis and osteogenic induction of lithium pretreated MSCs resulted in enhanced expression of Runx2, ALP and bone sialoprotein. However, siRNA-mediated knockdown of RRAD, CLEC3B and ATF4 attenuated lithium-induced osteogenic priming, identifying a role for RRAD, a member of small GTP binding protein family, in osteoblast differentiation. In conclusion, our data highlight the transcriptome reprogramming potential of lithium resulting in higher propensity of lithium "primed" MSCs for osteoblastic differentiation.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e55769. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055769 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A clear, overall picture of virtual character dynamic based motion generation and control methods is provided, which has a beneficial reference to the further research in this area. This survey concentrates on two core parts in dynamic motion control: how to build the dynamic simulator and how to establish the controller to realize various tasks. In the end, the future directions of research in this area are presented.
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