Position Statement: Definition of Traumatic Brain Injury

University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation (Impact Factor: 2.44). 11/2010; 91(11):1637-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2010.05.017
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A clear, concise definition of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is fundamental for reporting, comparison, and interpretation of studies on TBI. Changing epidemiologic patterns, an increasing recognition of significance of mild TBI, and a better understanding of the subtler neurocognitive neuroaffective deficits that may result from these injuries make this need even more critical. The Demographics and Clinical Assessment Working Group of the International and Interagency Initiative toward Common Data Elements for Research on Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Health has therefore formed an expert group that proposes the following definition: In this article, we discuss criteria for considering or establishing a diagnosis of TBI, with a particular focus on the problems how a diagnosis of TBI can be made when patients present late after injury and how mild TBI may be differentiated from non-TBI causes with similar symptoms. Technologic advances in magnetic resonance imaging and the development of biomarkers offer potential for improving diagnostic accuracy in these situations.

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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with most trauma-related deaths. Secondary brain injury is the leading cause of in-hospital deaths after traumatic brain injury. By early prevention and slowing of the initial pathophysiological mechanism of secondary brain injury, pre-hospital service can significantly reduce case-fatality rates of TBI. In China, the incidence of TBI is increasing and the proportion of severe TBI is much higher than that in other countries. The objective of this paper is to review the pre-hospital management of TBI in China. A literature search was conducted in January 2014 using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Articles on the assessment and treatment of TBI in pre-hospital settings practiced by Chinese doctors were identified. The information on the assessment and treatment of hypoxemia, hypotension, and brain herniation was extracted from the identified articles. Of the 471 articles identified, 65 met the selection criteria. The existing literature indicated that current practices of pre-hospital TBI management in China were sub-optimal and varied considerably across different regions. Since pre-hospital care is the weakest part of Chinese emergency care, appropriate training programs on pre-hospital TBI management are urgently needed in China.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal injury following blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) increases the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Blood-brain-barrier (BBB) disruption, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis have all been implicated in bTBI. Microvessel compromise is a primary effect of bTBI and is postulated to cause subcellular secondary effects such as ER stress. What remains unclear is how these secondary effects progress to personality disorders in humans exposed to head trauma. To investigate this we exposed male rats to a clinically relevant bTBI model we have recently developed. The study examined initial BBB disruption using Evan's blue (EB), ER stress mechanisms, apoptosis and impulsive-like behavior measured with elevated plus maze (EPM). Large BBB openings were observed immediately following bTBI, and persisted for at least 6 h. Data showed increased mRNA abundance of stress response genes at 3 h, with subsequent increases in the ER stress markers C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34) at 24 h. Caspase-12 and Caspase-3 were both cleaved at 24 h following bTBI. The ER stress inhibitor, salubrinal (SAL), was administered (1 mg/kg i.p.) to investigate its effects on neuronal injury and impulsive-like behavior associated with bTBI. SAL reduced CHOP protein expression, and diminished Caspase-3 cleavage, suggesting apoptosis attenuation. Interestingly, SAL also ameliorated impulsive-like behavior indicative of head trauma. These results suggest SAL plays a role in apoptosis regulation and the pathology of chronic disease. These observations provide evidence that bTBI involves ER stress and that the unfolded protein response (UPR) is a promising molecular target for the attenuation of neuronal injury.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 12/2014; 8:421. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00421 · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 10/2013; 94(10):e6. DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2013.08.029 · 2.44 Impact Factor


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May 23, 2014