Comparison of three methods for the derivation of a biologic scaffold composed of adipose tissue extracellular matrix.
ABSTRACT Extracellular matrix (ECM)-based scaffold materials have been used successfully in both preclinical and clinical tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to tissue reconstruction. Results of numerous studies have shown that ECM scaffolds are capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of multiple cell types in vitro and of acting as inductive templates for constructive tissue remodeling after implantation in vivo. Adipose tissue represents a potentially abundant source of ECM and may represent an ideal substrate for the growth and adipogenic differentiation of stem cells harvested from this tissue. Numerous studies have shown that the methods by which ECM scaffold materials are prepared have a dramatic effect upon both the biochemical and structural properties of the resultant ECM scaffold material as well as the ability of the material to support a positive tissue remodeling outcome after implantation. The objective of the present study was to characterize the adipose ECM material resulting from three methods of decellularization to determine the most effective method for the derivation of an adipose tissue ECM scaffold that was largely free of potentially immunogenic cellular content while retaining tissue-specific structural and functional components as well as the ability to support the growth and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. The results show that each of the decellularization methods produced an adipose ECM scaffold that was distinct from both a structural and biochemical perspective, emphasizing the importance of the decellularization protocol used to produce adipose ECM scaffolds. Further, the results suggest that the adipose ECM scaffolds produced using the methods described herein are capable of supporting the maintenance and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells and may represent effective substrates for use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to soft tissue reconstruction.
Article: Decellularized Extracellular Matrix Derived from Porcine Adipose Tissue as a Xenogeneic Biomaterial for Tissue Engineering.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cells in tissues are surrounded by the extracellular matrix (ECM), a gel-like material of proteins and polysaccharides that are synthesized and secreted by cells. Here we propose that the ECM can be isolated from porcine adipose tissue and holds great promise as a xenogeneic biomaterial for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porcine adipose tissue is easily obtained in large quantities from commonly discarded food waste. Decellularization protocols have been developed for extracting an intact ECM while effectively eliminating xenogeneic epitopes and minimally disrupting the ECM composition. Porcine adipose tissue was defatted by homogenization and centrifugation. It was then decellularized via chemical (1.5 M sodium chloride and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate) and enzymatic treatments (DNase and RNase) with temperature control. After decellularization, immunogenic components such as nucleic acids and α-Gal were significantly reduced. However, abundant ECM components, such as collagen (332.9±12.1 μg/mg ECM dry weight), sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG, 85±0.7 μg/mg ECM dry weight), and elastin (152.6±4.5 μg/mg ECM dry weight), were well preserved in the decellularized material. The biochemical and mechanical features of a decellularized ECM supported the adhesion and growth of human cells in vitro. Moreover, the decellularized ECM exhibited biocompatibility, long-term stability, and bioinductivity in vivo. The overall results suggest that the decellularized ECM derived from porcine adipose tissue could be useful as an alternative biomaterial for xenograft tissue engineering.Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 05/2012; · 4.64 Impact Factor