Arias E. United States life tables, 2006

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Contorl and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.
National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 06/2010; 58(21):1-40.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES:this report presents complete period life tables by age, race, and sex for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 2006. METHODS: Data used to prepare the 2006 life tables are 2006 final mortality statistics, July 1, 2006 population estimates based on the 2000 decennial census, and 2006 Medicare data for ages 66-100. The 2006 life tables were estimated using a recently revised methodology first applied to the final annual U.S. life tables series with the 2005 edition (1). For comparability, all life tables for the years 2000-2004 were reestimated using the revised methodology and were published in an appendix of the United States Life Tables, 2005 report (1). These revised tables replace all previously published life tables for years 2000-2004. RESULTs: In 2006, the overall expectation of life at birth was 77.7 years, representing an increase of 0.3 years from life expectancy in 2005. From 2005 to 2006, life expectancy at birth increased for all groups considered. It increased for males (from 74.9 to 75.1) and females (from 79.9 to 80.2), the white (from 77.9 to 78.2) and black populations (from 72.8 to 73.2), black males (from 69.3 to 69.7) and females (from 76.1 to 76.5), and white males (from 75.4 to 75.7) and females (from 80.4 to 80.6).

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Available from: Elizabeth Arias, Aug 19, 2015
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    • "Over the past century, common causes of death in the United States have shifted from a portfolio in which acute, communicable diseases played a prominent role to one dominated by chronic diseases most of which have less obvious involvement with infectious agents [1]. Accompanying this shift has been a dramatic reduction in infant and childhood mortality—by about 90% between 1935 and 2010 [2]—and a substantial lengthening of life expectancy [3]. Even in the modern era of chronic, degenerative diseases of the old age, the " face of death " has been changing. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) profoundly affects the end-of-life experience. Yet, counts of deaths attributable to AD understate this burden of AD in the population. Therefore, we estimated the annual number of deaths in the United States among older adults with AD from 2010 to 2050. Methods We calculated probabilities of AD incidence and mortality from a longitudinal population-based study of 10,802 participants. From this population, 1913 previously disease-free individuals, selected via stratified random sampling, underwent 2577 detailed clinical evaluations. Over the course of follow-up, 990 participants died. We computed age-, sex-, race-, and education-specific AD incidences and education-adjusted AD mortality proportions specific to age, sex, and race group. We then combined these probabilities with US-wide census, education, and mortality data. Results In 2010, approximately 600,000 deaths occurred among individuals aged 65 years or older with AD, comprising 32% of all older adult deaths. By 2050, this number is projected to be 1.6 million, 43% of all older adult deaths. Conclusion Individuals with AD comprise a substantial number of older adult deaths in the United States, a number expected to rise considerably in coming decades.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 03/2014; 10(2):e40–e46. DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2014.01.004 · 17.47 Impact Factor
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    • "In every health state, patients were at risk of death not related to liver disease. We modeled this risk by using age-and sex-specific mortality rates from US life tables [32]. In addition, patients with chronic liver disease were at risk of liver disease–related death once decompensation occurred. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Shortened courses of treatment with pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin for patients with hepatitis C virus infection who experience rapid virologic response can be effective in appropriately selected patients. The cost-effectiveness of truncated therapy is not known.Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of response-guided therapy versus standard-duration therapy on the basis of best available evidence.Methods We developed a decision model for chronic hepatitis C virus infection representing two treatment strategies: 1) standard-duration therapy with pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin for 48 weeks in patients with genotype 1 or 4 and for 24 weeks in patients with genotype 2 or 3 and 2) truncated therapy (i.e., 50% decrease in treatment duration) in patients with rapid virologic response. Patients for whom truncated therapy failed began standard-duration therapy guided by genotype. We used a Markov model to estimate lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years.ResultsIn the base-case analysis, mean lifetime costs were $46,623 ± $2,483 with standard-duration therapy and $42,354 ± $2,489 with truncated therapy. Mean lifetime quality-adjusted life-years were similar between the groups (17.1 ± 0.7 with standard therapy; 17.2 ± 0.7 with truncated therapy). Across model simulations, the probability of truncated therapy being economically dominant (i.e., both cost saving and more effective) was 78.6%. The results were consistent when we stratified the data by genotype. In one-way sensitivity analyses, the results were sensitive only to changes in treatment efficacy.Conclusion Truncated therapy based on rapid virologic response is likely to be cost saving for treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Cost-effectiveness varied with small changes in relative treatment efficacy.
    Value in Health 09/2012; 15(6):876–886. DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2012.06.010 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At the onset of the Great Depression, John Maynard Keynes made some startlingly optimistic predictions about the economic possibilities his grandchildren might face a century later. Within the next 100 years, Keynes proclaimed, technological progress would solve the economic problem facing human beings, individuals would devote themselves to noneconomic pursuits instead, and no one would continue to strive for relative goods. Was Keynes right? This article examines each of Keynes's three main prophecies and concludes that, even though over 75 years have transpired since they were made, and even though they were founded in part on the belief held by most classical economists in the value of technological progress and eco- nomic growth, not one of Keynes's predictions has been realized.
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