Metastatic malignant melanoma of the bladder is extremely rare in clinical practice with less than 10 cases reported in the last 30 years in the English literature. We report a case of malignant melanoma metastasis into the bladder, and review of the pertinent literature. A 60-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma in the distal phalanx on the right middle finger, excised 8 years ago presented with gross hematuria and weight loss. She underwent cystoscopy and complete transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. Pathological examination showed metastatic malignant melanoma of the bladder mucosa. The patient eventually died 7 months after transurethral resection.
"Plasmacytoid variant of melanoma is reported in only rare cases     . Bladder metastasis of melanoma are extremely rare  . To our knowledge, no bladder metastasis from a primary esophageal melanoma has been previously reported. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid variant of melanoma is reported in only rare cases. We present the case of a 54-years-old man admitted for enlarged lymph nodes in the lumbar region. Initial diagnosis of plasmablastic lymphoma/plasma cell myeloma was considered. At our institute, a bladder polyp was removed. Microscopic exam demonstrated dense plasmacytoid cells infiltration with pigment deposits. Immunohistochemical study showed strong expression of HMB45, Melan A, and vimentin. There was focal positivity with S100 protein and CD138/syndecan-1. The diagnosis of metastatic plasmacytoid melanoma was finally established. Clinical exam revealed an esophageal melanoma with melanosis supporting its primary location. Although rarely, melanoma especially plasmacytoid variant may express plasma cell markers which may lead to erroneous diagnosis of plasma cell proliferation. Careful morphological examination for melanin pigment and the use of panel of melanocytic markers are helpful for diagnosis.
"Surgery is the main treatment for urinary bladder melanoma, but the prognosis is poor. Metastatic melanoma of the urinary bladder is also rare , but always has to be excluded before establishing diagnosis of primary tumor. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary mucosal melanomas arise from melanocytes located in mucosal membranes lining respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. Although a majority of mucosal melanomas originate from the mucosa of the nasal cavity and accessory sinuses, oral cavity, anorectum, vulva and vagina, they can arise in almost any part of mucosal membranes. Most of mucosal melanomas occur in occult sites, which together with the lack of early and specific signs contribute to late diagnosis, and poor prognosis. Because of their rareness the knowledge about their pathogenesis and risk factors is insufficient, and also there are not well established protocols for staging and treatment of mucosal melanomas. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, with trends toward more conservative treatment since radical surgery did not show an advantage for survival. Radiotherapy can provide better local control in some locations, but did not show improvement in survival. There is no effective systemic therapy for these aggressive tumors. Compared with cutaneous and ocular melanoma, mucosal melanomas have lowest percent of five-year survival. Recently revealed molecular changes underlying mucosal melanomas offer new hope for development of more effective systemic therapy for mucosal melanomas. Herein we presented a comprehensive review of various locations of primary melanoma along mucosal membranes, their epidemiological and clinical features, and treatment options. We also gave a short comparison of some characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal melanomas.
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 10/2012; 5(8):739-53. · 1.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma are both treated with DNA damaging agents including platinum-based compounds and radiation therapy. However, at least one quarter of all tumors are resistant or refractory to these genotoxic agents. Yet the agents are extremely toxic, leading to undesirable side effects with potentially no benefit. Alternative therapies exist, but currently there are no tools to predict whether the first-line genotoxic agents will work in any given patient. To maximize therapeutic success and limit unnecessary toxicity, emerging clinical trials aim to inform personalized treatments tailored to the biology of individual tumors. Worldwide, significant resources have been invested in identifying biomarkers for guiding the treatment of lung and head and neck cancer. DNA repair proteins of the nucleotide excision repair pathway (ERCC1) and of the base excision repair pathway (XRCC1), which are instrumental in clearing DNA damage caused by platinum drugs and radiation, have been extensively studied as potential biomarkers of clinical outcomes in lung and head and neck cancers. The results are complex and contradictory. Here we summarize the current status of single nucleotide polymorphisms, mRNA, and protein expression of ERCC1 and XRCC1 in relation to cancer risk and patient outcomes.
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 07/2011; 4(1):47-63. DOI:10.2147/PGPM.S20317
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