Senegasaponins [senegin II (1), senegin III (2), senegin IV (3), senegasaponin a (4), and senegasaponin b (5)] from Polygala senega were re-discovered as selective anti-proliferative substances against human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Senegasaponins (1-5) showed anti-proliferative activity against HUVECs with IC(50) values in the range 0.6-6.2 μM, and the selective index was 7-100-fold in comparison with those for several cancer cell lines, while the desacyl mixture of senegasaponins (6) and tenuifolin (7) lost anti-proliferative activity, indicating that the 28-O-glycoside moiety and methoxycinnamoyl group were essential for the HUVEC-selective growth inhibition of senegasaponins. Senegin III (2) inhibited the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced in vitro tubular formation of HUVECs and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced in vivo neovascularization in the mouse Matrigel plug assay. Moreover, senegin III (2) suppressed tumor growth in the ddY mice s.c.-inoculated murine sarcoma S180 cells. The analysis of the action mechanism of senegin III (2) suggested that the induction of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) would contribute to the anti-angiogenic effects of senegasaponins.
"Modern pharmacological studies have already demonstrated that these triterpenoid saponins exhibited a wide variety of activities, such as cognitive improving, anti-angiogenic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressive, anxiolytic, sedative-hypnotic, and neuroprotective actions , –. Although various chemical and pharmacological properties of triterpenoid saponins have been extensively studied, there is no study that has focused on the biosynthetic pathway of the triterpenoid saponins in Radix Polygalae. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, named Radix Polygalae, is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine. Triterpenoid saponins are some of the most important components of Radix Polygalae extracts and are widely studied because of their valuable pharmacological properties. However, the relationship between gene expression and triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis in P. tenuifolia is unclear.
In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS)-based metabolomic analysis was performed to identify and quantify the different chemical constituents of the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of P. tenuifolia. A total of 22 marker compounds (VIP>1) were explored, and significant differences in all 7 triterpenoid saponins among the different tissues were found. We also observed an efficient reference gene GAPDH for different tissues in this plant and determined the expression level of some genes in the triterpenoid saponin biosynthetic pathway. Results showed that MVA pathway has more important functions in the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis of P. tenuifolia. The expression levels of squalene synthase (SQS), squalene monooxygenase (SQE), and beta-amyrin synthase (β-AS) were highly correlated with the peak area intensity of triterpenoid saponins compared with data from UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomic analysis.
This finding suggested that a combination of UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomics and gene expression analysis can effectively elucidate the mechanism of triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis and can provide useful information on gene discovery. These findings can serve as a reference for using the overexpression of genes encoding for SQS, SQE, and/or β-AS to increase the triterpenoid saponin production of P. tenuifolia.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105765. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105765 · 3.23 Impact Factor
" mal model . From our in vitro and in vivo results , we concluded that SB365 has potent anti - angiogenic activity by inhibiting VEGF and HIF - 1a . Indeed , these results were similar to those presented in previous reports that various saponins inhibited angiogenesis by inhibiting the growth and decreasing the expression of VEGF in cancer cells ( Arai et al . , 2011 ; Chen , Zhang , & Wang , 2010 ; Chen et al . , 2011 ; Tian et al . , 2005 ) ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulsatilla koreana has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine if SB365, Pulsatilla saponin D isolated from the root of P. koreana inhibits the progression of colon cancer. We found that SB365 strongly suppressed the growth and proliferation of colon cancer cells and induced their apoptosis. Also, SB365 showed anti-angiogenic activity by decreasing the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF. These results were confirmed by an in vivo study showing that SB365 significantly inhibited tumor growth by the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis with stronger anticancer activity than 5-FU. When further examined for its anticancer mechanism, SB365 effectively suppressed the AKT/mTOR pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our study demonstrated that SB365 inhibits the AKT/mTOR pathway, leading to the suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis together with induction of apoptosis. Therefore, SB365 is a good candidate as a natural product for use in the treatment of colon cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trichomonosis, caused by the flagellate protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Actually, the infection treatment is based on 5-nitroimidazole drugs. However, an emergent number of resistant isolates makes important the search for new therapeutic arsenal. In this sense, the investigation of plants and their metabolites is an interesting approach. In the present study, the anti-T. vaginalis activity of 44 aqueous extracts from 23 Caatinga plants used in folk medicine was evaluated. After screening 44 aqueous extracts from 23 distinct plants against two isolates from ATCC and four fresh clinical isolates, only the Polygala decumbens root extract was effective in reducing significantly the trophozoite viability. The MIC value against all isolates tested, including the metronidazole resistant, was 1.56 mg/mL. The kinetic growth assays showed that the extract was able to completely abolish the parasite density in the first hours of incubation, confirmed by microscopy. In summary, this study describes the first report on the activity of P. decumbens from Caatinga against T. vaginalis, being directly related to the popular knowledge and use.
Parasitology Research 12/2011; 110(6):2581-7. DOI:10.1007/s00436-011-2787-4 · 2.10 Impact Factor
Kirsten R Palmer, Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino, Roxanne Hastie, Natalie J Hannan, Louie Ye, Natalie Binder, Ping Cannon, Laura Tuohey, Terrance G Johns, Alexis Shub, Stephen Tong
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