Incorporation of the TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A into the bilayer of DDA/TDB liposomes: physico-chemical characterization and induction of CD8+ T-cell responses in vivo.
ABSTRACT The combination of delivery systems like cationic liposomes and immunopotentiators such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands is a promising approach for rational vaccine adjuvant design. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the incorporation of the poorly soluble TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) into cationic liposomes based on dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) and trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) influenced the physicochemical and immunological properties of the liposomes.
The DDA/TDB/MPL liposomes were characterized with regard to particle size, poly dispersity, surface charge, stability and thermodynamic properties. The adjuvant formulations were tested in vivo in mice using ovalbumin (OVA) as model antigen.
Integration of MPL into the bilayer structure of DDA/TDB liposomes was evident from a decreased phase transition temperature, an improved membrane packing, and a reduction in surface charge. The particle size and favorable liposome storage stability were not affected by MPL. In mice, DDA/TDB/MPL liposomes induced an antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell response and a humoral response.
Enhancing the solubility of MPL by inclusion into the bilayer of DDA/TDB liposomes changes the membrane characteristics of the adjuvant system and provides the liposomes with CD8(+) T-cell inducing properties without compromising humoral responses.
Article: Potentiating effects of MPL on DSPC bearing cationic liposomes promote recombinant GP63 vaccine efficacy: high immunogenicity and protection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vaccines that activate strong specific Th1-predominant immune responses are critically needed for many intracellular pathogens, including Leishmania. The requirement for sustained and efficient vaccination against leishmaniasis is to formulate the best combination of immunopotentiating adjuvant with the stable antigen (Ag) delivery system. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an immunomodulator on liposomal Ag through subcutaneous (s.c.) route of immunization, and its usefulness during prime/boost against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in BALB/c mice. Towards this goal, we formulated recombinant GP63 (rGP63)-based vaccines either with monophosphoryl lipid A-trehalose dicorynomycolate (MPL-TDM) or entrapped within cationic liposomes or both. Combinatorial administration of liposomes with MPL-TDM during prime confers activation of dendritic cells, and induces an early robust T cell response. To investigate whether the combined formulation is required for optimum immune response during boost as well, we chose to evaluate the vaccine efficacy in mice primed with combined adjuvant system followed by boosting with either rGP63 alone, in association with MPL-TDM, liposomes or both. We provide evidences that the presence of either liposomal rGP63 or combined formulations during boost is necessary for effective Th1 immune responses (IFN-γ, IL-12, NO) before challenge infection. However, boosting with MPL-TDM in conjugation with liposomal rGP63 resulted in a greater number of IFN-γ producing effector T cells, significantly higher levels of splenocyte proliferation, and Th1 responses compared to mice boosted with liposomal rGP63, after virulent Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) challenge. Moreover, combined formulations offered superior protection against intracellular amastigote replication in macrophages in vitro, and hepatic and splenic parasite load in vivo. Our results define the immunopotentiating effect of MPL-TDM on protein Ag encapsulated in a controlled release system against experimental VL.PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 12/2011; 5(12):e1429. · 4.69 Impact Factor