Poor physical and mental functioning are more common among women than men and those with disadvantaged work and family characteristics. This study aims to clarify whether sex differences in health functioning can be explained by sex differences in work and family characteristics. The subjects were 3787 civil servants (2525 men and 1262 women), aged 20-65, working in a local government on the west coast of Japan. A questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2003. Low employment grade, high demands, long work hours, shift work, being unmarried, having no young children, high family-to-work conflict and high work-to-family conflict were more common among women than men and were independently associated with poor physical and mental functioning. The age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of women for poor health functioning were 1.80 for poor physical functioning and 1.77 for poor mental functioning. When adjusted for employment grade and work characteristics (control, demand, support, work hours, and shift work), the sex differences in health functioning attenuated. When adjusted for family characteristics (family structure and work-family conflicts), the sex differences in health functioning further attenuated and were no longer statistically significant. Sex differences in family characteristics contributed more to sex difference in mental functioning than sex differences in work characteristics. Japan belongs to conservative welfare regimes. In such countries, men are able to concentrate on their work with relative freedom from their family tasks and responsibilities, whereas women feel difficulties in maintaining their work-life balances. Such sex differences in work- and family-related stresses may contribute to sex difference in health. Longitudinal research is necessary to clarify the causal nature of these associations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Employment insecurity and workplace injustice are important psychosocial hazards. However, few studies of these associations have been conducted in Chinese-speaking populations.
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of employment insecurity and workplace justice scales, and examined their associations with the levels of workers' burnout status in Taiwanese workers.
Study subjects were participants in a national survey of employees in Taiwan, consisting of 9,636 men and 7,406 women. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess employment insecurity (six items) and workplace justice (nine items), as well as other psychosocial work characteristics. After the survey was completed, in-depth interviews with 10 employees were conducted for a qualitative evaluation.
Cronbach's α was 0.87 or greater for the workplace justice scale and 0.76 or greater for the employment insecurity scale, indicating satisfactory internal consistencies. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a factor pattern consistent with the theoretically assumed structure, except that the items with statements in reversed direction were loaded on separated factors. Higher levels of employment insecurity and lower levels of workplace justice were associated with higher burnout scores. However, results from the qualitative interviews suggested that some questionnaire items contained double-barreled questions, and some questions were misinterpreted or considered irrelevant by participants.
The Chinese version of employment insecurity and workplace justice scales were found to have satisfactory reliability and validity. However, improvement of these scales is still needed.
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 03/2011; 18(4):391-401. DOI:10.1007/s12529-011-9152-y · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Occupational stress is a common phenomenon in our society, and generates problems for both workers' health and the functioning of organizations. Over past decades numerous studies have examined occupational stress from the perspective of gender, offering somewhat contradictory results. Some of them found no differences and others indicated that either men or women suffer from greater amounts of occupational stress.
The purpose of this study was to analyze gender differences in stress in situations that involve certain occupational demands. The data used were taken from a random sample population of 11,054 (5,917 men and 5,137 women) from the VI National Survey on Working Conditions (NSWC) which was conducted in Spain in 2007. To carry out this study, a probabilistic model was constructed using Bayesian networks, with the following variables related to task demands: working with tight deadlines, quick work, intellectually demanding work, complicated tasks, repetitive tasks, excessive work, and work demanding high attention levels.
The results of this study reveal that: the indicators studied significantly increased stress levels; women initially had higher stress levels than men; and when exposed to determined task demands, stress differences between genders tended to increase.
Companies need to consider the gender of their workers when assigning tasks in high demand/stress jobs.
Journal of safety research 12/2012; 43(5-6):365-74. DOI:10.1016/j.jsr.2012.10.005 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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