Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L., cannabinoids and terpenoids for chemotaxonomic and drug standardization purposes.
ABSTRACT Cannabis sativa L. is an important medicinal plant. In order to develop cannabis plant material as a medicinal product quality control and clear chemotaxonomic discrimination between varieties is a necessity. Therefore in this study 11 cannabis varieties were grown under the same environmental conditions. Chemical analysis of cannabis plant material used a gas chromatography flame ionization detection method that was validated for quantitative analysis of cannabis monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and cannabinoids. Quantitative data was analyzed using principal component analysis to determine which compounds are most important in discriminating cannabis varieties. In total 36 compounds were identified and quantified in the 11 varieties. Using principal component analysis each cannabis variety could be chemically discriminated. This methodology is useful for both chemotaxonomic discrimination of cannabis varieties and quality control of plant material.
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ABSTRACT: Concentrated cannabis extracts, also known as Cannabis oils because of their sticky and viscous appearance, are becoming increasingly popular among self-medicating patients as a claimed cure for cancer. In general, preparation methods for Cannabis oils are relatively simple and do not re-quire particular instruments. The most well-known example of such a product is called 'Simpson oil'. The purpose of the extraction, often followed by a solvent evaporation step, is to make canna-binoids and other beneficial components such as terpenes available in a highly concentrated form. Although various preparation methods have been recommended for Cannabis oils, so far no stud-ies have reported on the chemical composition of such products. Recognizing the need for more information on quality and safety issues regarding Cannabis oils, an analytical study was performed to compare several generally used preparation methods on the basis of content of cannabinoids, terpenes, and residual solvent components. Solvents used include ethanol, naphtha, petroleum ether, and olive oil. The obtained results are not intended to support or deny the therapeutic properties of these products, but may be useful for better understanding the experiences of self-medicating patients through chemical analysis of this popular medicine.
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ABSTRACT: Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC×GC/qMS) analysis of Cannabis sativa extracts shows a high complexity due to the large variety of terpenes and cannabinoids and to the fact that the complete resolution of the peaks is not straightforwardly achieved. In order to support the resolution of the co-eluted peaks in the sesquiterpene and the cannabinoid chromatographic region the combination of Multivariate Curve Resolution and Alternating Least Squares algorithms was satisfactorily applied. As a result, four co-eluting areas were totally resolved in the sesquiterpene region and one in the cannabinoid region in different samples of Cannabis sativa. The comparison of the mass spectral profiles obtained for each resolved peak with theoretical mass spectra allowed the identification of some of the co-eluted peaks. Finally, the classification of the studied samples was achieved based on the relative concentrations of the resolved peaks.Talanta 12/2013; · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Discrimination power evaluation of UV-Vis and (±) electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric techniques, (ESI-MS) individually considered or coupled as detectors to reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) in the characterization of Ginkgo Biloba standardized extracts, is used in herbal medicines and/or dietary supplements with the help of Fuzzy hierarchical clustering (FHC). Seventeen batches of Ginkgo Biloba commercially available standardized extracts from seven manufacturers were measured during experiments. All extracts were within the criteria of the official monograph dedicated to dried refined and quantified Ginkgo extracts, in the European Pharmacopoeia. UV-Vis and (±) ESI-MS spectra of the bulk standardized extracts in methanol were acquired. Additionally, an RPLC separation based on a simple gradient elution profile was applied to the standardized extracts. Detection was made through monitoring UV absorption at 220nm wavelength or the total ion current (TIC) produced through (±) ESI-MS analysis. FHC was applied to raw, centered and scaled data sets, for evaluating the discrimination power of the method with respect to the origins of the extracts and to the batch to batch variability. The discrimination power increases with the increase of the intrinsic selectivity of the spectral technique being used: UV-Vis<MS(-)<MS(+), but it is strongly sensitive to chemometric transformation of data. Comparison with cluster analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA) indicates that the FHC algorithm produces better classification. However, PCA and CA may be successfully applied to discriminate between the manufacturing sources of the standardized extracts, and at some extent, to monitor the inter-batch variability. Although the chromatographic dimension sensibly contributes to the discrimination power, spectral MS data may be used as the lone powerful holistic alternative in characterization of standardized Ginkgo Biloba extracts.Talanta 02/2014; 119C:524-532. · 3.50 Impact Factor