Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L., cannabinoids and terpenoids for chemotaxonomic and drug standardization purposes.
ABSTRACT Cannabis sativa L. is an important medicinal plant. In order to develop cannabis plant material as a medicinal product quality control and clear chemotaxonomic discrimination between varieties is a necessity. Therefore in this study 11 cannabis varieties were grown under the same environmental conditions. Chemical analysis of cannabis plant material used a gas chromatography flame ionization detection method that was validated for quantitative analysis of cannabis monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and cannabinoids. Quantitative data was analyzed using principal component analysis to determine which compounds are most important in discriminating cannabis varieties. In total 36 compounds were identified and quantified in the 11 varieties. Using principal component analysis each cannabis variety could be chemically discriminated. This methodology is useful for both chemotaxonomic discrimination of cannabis varieties and quality control of plant material.
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ABSTRACT: Five marijuana samples were compared using bulk isotope analysis compound-specific isotope ratio analysis of the extracted cannabinoids. Owing to the age of our cannabis samples, four of the five samples were compared using the isotope ratios of cannabinol (CBN), a stable degradation product of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Bulk δ(13)C isotope analysis discriminated between all five samples at the 95% confidence level. Compound-specific δ(13)C isotope analysis could not distinguish between one pair of the five samples at the 95% confidence level. All the measured cannabinoids showed significant depletion in (13)C relative to bulk isotope values; the isotope ratios for THC, CBN, and cannabidiol were on average 1.6‰, 1.7‰, and 2.2‰ more negative than the bulk values, respectively. A more detailed investigation needs to be conducted to assess the degree fractionation between the different cannabinoids, especially after aging.Journal of Forensic Sciences 01/2012; 57(3):757-64. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Concentrated cannabis extracts, also known as Cannabis oils because of their sticky and viscous appearance, are becoming increasingly popular among self-medicating patients as a claimed cure for cancer. In general, preparation methods for Cannabis oils are relatively simple and do not re-quire particular instruments. The most well-known example of such a product is called 'Simpson oil'. The purpose of the extraction, often followed by a solvent evaporation step, is to make canna-binoids and other beneficial components such as terpenes available in a highly concentrated form. Although various preparation methods have been recommended for Cannabis oils, so far no stud-ies have reported on the chemical composition of such products. Recognizing the need for more information on quality and safety issues regarding Cannabis oils, an analytical study was performed to compare several generally used preparation methods on the basis of content of cannabinoids, terpenes, and residual solvent components. Solvents used include ethanol, naphtha, petroleum ether, and olive oil. The obtained results are not intended to support or deny the therapeutic properties of these products, but may be useful for better understanding the experiences of self-medicating patients through chemical analysis of this popular medicine.
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ABSTRACT: This is the first report of chemiluminescence from the reaction of cannabinoids with acidic potassium permanganate, which we have applied to the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of cannabidiol (CBD) in industrial-grade hemp. The intensities of the light-producing reactions with two commercially available cannabinoid standards were compared to that of seven model phenolic analytes. Resorcinol, representing the parent phenolic moiety of the cannabinoid class, was shown to react with the permanganate reagents in a manner more similar to phenol than to its hydroxyphenol positional isomers, pyrocatechol and hydroquinone. Alkyl substituents on the phenolic ring, however, have a considerable impact on emission intensity that is dependent upon the position of the groups and the composition of the permanganate reagent. This analytical approach has potential for the determination of other cannabinoids including Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol in drug-grade cannabis.Drug Testing and Analysis 03/2012; 4(7-8):675-9. · 3.17 Impact Factor