Article

Abnormal brain activation during working memory in children with prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse: the effects of methamphetamine, alcohol, and polydrug exposure.

Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7332, USA.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.13). 10/2010; 54(4):3067-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.10.072
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Structural and metabolic abnormalities in fronto-striatal structures have been reported in children with prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure. The current study was designed to quantify functional alterations to the fronto-striatal circuit in children with prenatal MA exposure using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Because many women who use MA during pregnancy also use alcohol, a known teratogen, we examined 50 children (age range 7-15), 19 with prenatal MA exposure, 15 of whom had concomitant prenatal alcohol exposure (the MAA group), 13 with heavy prenatal alcohol but no MA exposure (ALC group), and 18 unexposed controls (CON group). We hypothesized that MA exposed children would demonstrate abnormal brain activation during a visuospatial working memory (WM) "N-Back" task. As predicted, the MAA group showed less activation than the CON group in many brain areas, including the striatum and frontal lobe in the left hemisphere. The ALC group showed less activation than the MAA group in several regions, including the right striatum. We found an inverse correlation between performance and activity in the striatum in both the CON and MAA groups. However, this relationship was significant in the caudate of the CON group but not the MAA group, and in the putamen of the MAA group but not the CON group. These findings suggest that structural damage in the fronto-striatal circuit after prenatal MA exposure leads to decreased recruitment of this circuit during a WM challenge, and raise the possibility that a rewiring of cortico-striatal networks may occur in children with prenatal MA exposure.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
107 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review familiarizes clinicians with the symptoms of overdose and withdrawal, as well as neurologic complications, associated with particular illicit drugs.
    CONTINUUM Lifelong Learning in Neurology 06/2014; 20(3, Neurology of Systemic Disease):642-656.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reveals brain activation abnormalities during visuo-spatial attention and working memory among those with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in cross-sectional reports, but little is known about how activation changes over time during development within FASD or typically developing children. We studied 30 controls and 31 individuals with FASD over 2 years (7–14 years at first participation) with a total of 122 scans, as part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Despite comparable performance, there were significant group differences in visuo-spatial activation over time bilaterally in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Controls showed an increase in signal intensity in these multiple regions whereas FASD participants showed a decrease in brain activation. Effects were also found in 2 small independent samples from the USA, corroborating the findings from the larger group. Results suggest that the long-lasting effect
    Cerebral Cortex 01/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background & Aims: This study investigated high-risk drinking and polydrug use (PU) over 6 months for freshmen college students. Methods: The Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) brief motivational interviewing (BMI) intervention was implemented at a public university as a 3-year programme designed to reduce underage drinking among freshmen with a secondary focus on PU. Participants were 299 freshmen from a state-supported university. Participants attended baseline visit, 2-week, 3- and 6-month visits. Analysis: Paired t-tests were used to determine the differences between alcohol consumption at different time points. McNemar’s test was used to compare correlated proportions. Results: At the baseline, 30% of the participants were drinking and using illicit drugs, compared with 25% at the sixth month visit. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a decrease in alcohol consumption will also reduce the probability of PU. These findings can assist in developing health professional strategies for effective use of BMI interventions aimed at alcohol and PU.
    Journal of Substance Use 11/2012; 17(5-6). · 0.48 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
8 Downloads
Available from
Jul 15, 2014