Glutamate excitotoxicity has been implicated as one of the factors contributing to neuronal apoptosis and is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to protect cultured neurons from excitotoxicity-induced apoptosis, although the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we evaluated whether adipose mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) could protect against glutamate-induced injury in PC12 cells by secreting neurotrophic factors. We found that AMSCs secreted neurotrophic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. AMSC - conditioned medium (AMSC-CM) had a protective effect on excitotoxicity-injured PC12 cells, as indicated by increased cell viability, decreased number of TUNEL-staining positive nuclei and lowered caspase-3 activity. By using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and specific inhibitors, VEGF, HGF and BDNF were identified as the mediators of AMSC effects and PI3-K/Akt and MAPK pathways were involved. Western blot analysis showed that AMSC-CM can increase the level of p-Akt, up-regulate XIAP and reduce the level of cleaved-caspase-3 in PC12 cells. These results suggest that AMSCs can effectively protect PC12 cells from glutamate excitotoxicity-induced apoptosis and support the hypothesis that AMSCs may be a useful treatment for stroke or neurodegenerative diseases which often involve excitotoxicity.
"In relation to the above , there are reports that excitotoxic cell death in PC12 cells , can be effected by apoptosis and / or necrosis ( Bal - Price and Brown , 2000 ; Lu et al . , 2011 ; Ma et al . , 2012 ) , while others support a caspase independent calpain mediated cell death ( Roth et al . , 2000 ; Pourzitaki et al . , 2007 , 2009 ) probably necroptosis by activation of AIF ( Shang et al . , 2014 ) . Investigating hypoxia in a PC12 oxygen glucose depri - vation model ( Kritis et al . , 2011 ) , showed that catheps"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although glutamate is one of the most important excitatory neurotransmitters of the central nervous system, its excessive extracellular concentration leads to uncontrolled continuous depolarization of neurons, a toxic process called, excitotoxicity. In excitotoxicity glutamate triggers the rise of intracellular Ca 2+ levels, followed by up regulation of nNOS, dysfunction of mitochondria, ROS production, ER stress, and release of lysosomal enzymes. Excessive calcium concentration is the key mediator of glutamate toxicity through over activation of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. In addition, glutamate accumulation can also inhibit cystine (CySS) uptake by reversing the action of the CySS/glutamate antiporter. Reversal of the antiporter action reinforces the aforementioned events by depleting neurons of cysteine and eventually glutathione's reducing potential. Various cell lines have been employed in the pursuit to understand the mechanism(s) by which excitotoxicity affects the cells leading them ultimately to their demise. In some cell lines glutamate toxicity is exerted mainly through over activation of NMDA, AMPA, or kainate receptors whereas in other cell lines lacking such receptors, the toxicity is due to glutamate induced oxidative stress. However, in the greatest majority of the cell lines ionotropic glutamate receptors are present, co-existing to CySS/glutamate antiporters and metabotropic glutamate receptors, supporting the assumption that excitotoxicity effect in these cells is accumulative. Different cell lines differ in their responses when exposed to glutamate. In this review article the responses of PC12, SH-SY5Y, HT-22, NT-2, OLCs, C6, primary rat cortical neurons, RGC-5, and SCN2.2 cell systems are systematically collected and analyzed.
"Additionally, activation of both
AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) is considered to contribute to
cell proliferation and apoptosis (18,19). Previous studies demonstrated that inhibition
of phosphorylation of both AKT and ERKs is involved in glutamate-induced cell damage
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study focuses on the neuroprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a major compound separated from Glycyrrhiza Radix, which is a crude Chinese traditional drug) against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cells. The results showed that GA treatment improved cell viability and ameliorated abnormal glutamate-induced alterations in mitochondria in DPC12 cells. GA reversed glutamate-suppressed B-cell lymphoma 2 levels, inhibited glutamate-enhanced expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase 3, and reduced cytochrome C (Cyto C) release. Exposure to glutamate strongly inhibited phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); however, GA pretreatment enhanced activation of ERKs but not AKT. The presence of PD98059 (a mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase [MEK] inhibitor) but not LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor) diminished the potency of GA for improving viability of glutamate-exposed DPC12 cells. These results indicated that ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for the neuroprotective effect of GA against glutamate-induced toxicity in DPC12 cells. The present study provides experimental evidence supporting GA as a potential therapeutic agent for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 07/2014; DOI:10.1590/1414-431X20143760 · 1.01 Impact Factor
"Combined with the activation of ERK, mitochondrial depolarization is associated with apoptotic cell death (17). Another pathway involved in this process is the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which is essential for rescuing neuronal cells from oxidative stress (18). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a major compound separated from Radix Glycyrrhizae, has been shwon to exert various biochemical effects, including neuroprotective effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of GA against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)‑induced damage to differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cells. Compared with the MPP+-treated cells, GA markedly improved cell viability, restored mitochondrial dysfunction, suppressed the overexpression of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and suppressed the overproduction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and intracellular Ca2+ overload. The protective effects of GA on cell survival were further confirmed in primary cortical neurons. GA markedly increased the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), as well as its migration from the cytoplasm to nucleus. PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK, blocked GA-enhanced ERK activation and reduced cell viability. However, pre-treatment with GA had no effects on the expression of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) and total AKT (t-AKT). These results indicate that the GA-mediated neuroprotective effects are associated with its modulation of multiple anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic factors, particularly the ERK signaling pathway. This study provides evidence supporting the use of GA as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and neuronal injury.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 07/2014; 34(3). DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2014.1830 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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