Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 during bipolar mania treatment.

Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, 1720 Seventh Avenue South, Beijing, China.
Bipolar Disorders (Impact Factor: 4.62). 11/2010; 12(7):741-52. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2010.00866.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bipolar disorder is a debilitating psychiatric illness presenting with recurrent mania and depression. The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is poorly understood, and molecular targets in the treatment of bipolar disorder remain to be identified. Preclinical studies have suggested that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a potential therapeutic target in bipolar disorder, but evidence of abnormal GSK3 in human bipolar disorder and its response to treatment is still lacking.
This study was conducted in acutely ill type I bipolar disorder subjects who were hospitalized for a manic episode. The protein level and the inhibitory serine phosphorylation of GSK3 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of bipolar manic and healthy control subjects were compared, and the response of GSK3 to antimanic treatment was evaluated.
The levels of GSK3α and GSK3β in this group of bipolar manic subjects were higher than healthy controls. Symptom improvement during an eight-week antimanic treatment with lithium, valproate, and atypical antipsychotics was accompanied by a significant increase in the inhibitory serine phosphorylation of GSK3, but not the total level of GSK3, whereas concomitant electroconvulsive therapy treatment during a manic episode appeared to dampen the response of GSK3 to pharmacological treatment.
Results of this study suggest that GSK3 can be modified during the treatment of bipolar mania. This finding in human bipolar disorder is in agreement with preclinical data suggesting that inhibition of GSK3 by increasing serine phosphorylation is a response of GSK3 to psychotropics used in bipolar disorder, supporting the notion that GSK3 is a promising molecular target in the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To review the role of Wnt pathways in the neurodevelopment of schizophrenia. SYSTEMATIC PUBMED SEARCH, USING AS KEYWORDS ALL THE TERMS RELATED TO THE WNT PATHWAYS AND CROSSING THEM WITH EACH OF THE FOLLOWING AREAS: normal neurodevelopment and physiology, neurodevelopmental theory of schizophrenia, schizophrenia, and antipsychotic drug action. Neurodevelopmental, behavioural, genetic, and psychopharmacological data point to the possible involvement of Wnt systems, especially the canonical pathway, in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and in the mechanism of antipsychotic drug action. The molecules most consistently found to be associated with abnormalities or in antipsychotic drug action are Akt1, glycogen synthase kinase3beta, and beta-catenin. However, the extent to which they contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia or to antipsychotic action remains to be established. The study of the involvement of Wnt pathway abnormalities in schizophrenia may help in understanding this multifaceted clinical entity; the development of Wnt-related pharmacological targets must await the collection of more data.
    Current Neuropharmacology 09/2013; 11(5):535-558. · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: It has been postulated that mood stabilizers inhibit glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (Gsk3β) activity, mainly through its phosphorylation on serine-9 (Ser9). However, in vivo studies addressing Gsk3β activity in patients with bipolar disorder are scarce. Here, we compare Gsk3β inactivation (as indicated by Ser9-phosphorylation) in platelets of elderly patients with bipolar disorder undergoing clinical treatment and healthy elderly adults not taking medication. Methods: Platelet samples were obtained from 37 elderly adults (bipolar disorder = 19, controls = 18). Relative changes in Gsk3β inactivation was estimated by comparing the ratios of phosphorylated Gsk3β to total Gsk3β (p-Gsk3β Ser9/Gsk3β) between the disease and control groups. Results: Phosphorylated-Gsk3β (p < 0.001) and the p-Gsk3β Ser9/Gsk3β ratio (p = 0.006) were elevated in bipolar patients. In the bipolar disorder group, p-Gsk3β Ser9/Gsk3β was positively correlated with serum lithium levels (r = 0.478, p = 0.039). Conclusions: Gsk3β inactivation is higher in this group of elderly adults undergoing treatment for bipolar disorder. However, whether the treatment or the disease causes Gsk3β inactivation was confounded by the lack of an unmedicated, bipolar control group and the non-uniform treatment regimens of the bipolar disorder group. Thus, further studies should help distinguish whether Gsk3β inactivation is an effect of drug treatment or an intrinsic characteristic of bipolar disorder.
    Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 09/2013; 35(3):274-8. · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Historically, the human brain has been conceptually segregated from the periphery and further dichotomized into gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) based on the whitish appearance of the exceptionally high lipid content of the myelin sheaths encasing neuronal axons. These simplistic dichotomies were unfortunately extended to conceptually segregate neurons from glia, cognition from behavior, and have been codified in the separation of clinical and scientific fields into medicine, psychiatry, neurology, pathology, etc. The discrete classifications have helped obscure the importance of continual dynamic communication between all brain cell types (neurons, astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and precursor (NG2) cells) as well as between brain and periphery through multiple signaling systems. The signaling systems range from neurotransmitters to insulin, angiotensin, and multiple kinases such a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) that together help integrate metabolism, inflammation, and myelination processes and orchestrate the development, plasticity, maintenance, and repair that continually optimize function of neural networks. A more comprehensive, evolution-based, systems biology approach that integrates brain, body, and environmental interactions may ultimately prove more fruitful in elucidating the complexities of human brain function. The historic focus on neurons/GM is rebalanced herein by highlighting the importance of a systems-level understanding of the interdependent age-related shifts in both central and peripheral homeostatic mechanisms that can lead to remarkably prevalent and devastating neuropsychiatric diseases. Herein we highlight the role of glia, especially the most recently evolved oligodendrocytes and the myelin they produce, in achieving and maintaining optimal brain function. The human brain undergoes exceptionally protracted and pervasive myelination (even throughout its GM) and can thus achieve and maintain the rapid conduction and synchronous timing of neural networks on which optimal function depends. The continuum of increasing myelin vulnerability resulting from the human brain's protracted myelination underlies underappreciated communalities between different disease phenotypes ranging from developmental ones such as schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) to degenerative ones such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). These shared vulnerabilities also expose significant yet underexplored opportunities for novel treatment and prevention approaches that have the potential to considerably reduce the tremendous burden of neuropsychiatric disease. GLIA 2014
    Glia 07/2014; · 5.47 Impact Factor


Available from