Antidepressant-induced mania (AIM) has been associated with the serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism in some studies but not in others. We conducted a meta-analysis of those studies and other studies of genetic predictors of AIM.
MEDLINE-based searches of genetic studies of AIM were conducted, and a meta-analysis of six studies of 5-HTTLPR was performed. Other polymorphisms were insufficiently studied to allow for meta-analysis.
There was an association of the short (s) variant of 5-HTTLPR and AIM [risk ratio (RR) = 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.76, p=0.02]. There was a higher frequency of s carriers (sl and ss genotypes) in those who developed AIM [RR = 1.38, 95% CI: 0.98-1.93), p=0.06].
The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism appears to have a moderate effect size association with AIM in patients with bipolar disorder.
"Adolescents who have not manifested the manic component of a bipolar disorder may be particularly vulnerable to SSRI antidepressant-induced mania or hypomania (Frye et al., 2009). Although preliminary studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and antidepressant-induced mania (Mundo et al., 2001; Rousseva et al., 2003; Serretti et al., 2004; Baumer et al., 2006; Masoliver et al., 2006; Ferreira Ade et al., 2009), a recent meta-analysis indicated a higher incidence of antidepressant-induced mania in patients with the “s” variant of 5-HTTLPR (Daray et al., 2010). Likelihood of SSRI monotherapy response is deemed low once failure of the “SSRI challenge” test has been observed in this category. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: First-line treatment of major depression includes administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), yet studies suggest that remission rates following two trials of an SSRI are less than 50%. The authors examine the putative biological substrates underlying “Treatment Refractory Depression (TRD)” with the goal of elucidating novel rationales to treat TRD. We look at relevant articles from the preclinical and clinical literature combined with clinical exposure to TRD patients. A major focus was to outline pathophysiological mechanisms whereby the serotonin (5-HT) system becomes impervious to the desired enhancement of 5-HT neurotransmission by SSRI’s. A complementary focus was to dissect neurotransmitter systems, which serve to inhibit the dorsal raphe. We propose, based on a body of translational studies, TRD may not represent a simple 5-HT deficit state but rather an excess of midbrain peri-raphe 5-HT and subsequent deficit at key fronto-limbic projection sites, with ultimate compromise in 5-HT-mediated neuroplasticity. Glutamate, 5-HT, noradrenaline and histamine are activated by stress and exert an inhibitory effect on 5-HT outflow, in part by “flooding” 5-HT1A autoreceptors by 5-HT itself. Certain factors putatively exacerbate this scenario- presence of the short arm of the serotonin transporter gene, early life adversity and comorbid bipolar disorder- each of which has been associated with SSRI-treatment resistance. By utilizing an incremental approach, we provide a system for treating the TRD patient based on a strategy of rescuing 5-HT neurotransmission from a state of SSRI-induced dorsal raphe stasis. This calls for “stacked” interventions, with an SSRI base, targeting, if necessary, the glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic and histaminergic systems, thereby successively eliminating the inhibitory effects each are capable of exerting on 5-HT neurons. Future studies are recommended to test this biologically based approach for TRD.
"In the 1980s sibutramine was initially intended as an antidepressant drug . In the 2000s antidepressant-associated mania has been linked to all major antidepressant classes in a subgroup of 20-40 % of bipolar patients [18,19]. Bipolar spectrum incorporates classic bipolar disorder (manic + depressive episode), bipolar II disorder (hypomanic + depressive episode), and bipolar III disorder that is not an official diagnosis recognized by psychiatric associations. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sibutramine, used in obesity treatment, has been associated with many neuropsychiatric side effects including hypomanic and manic episodes. Hypomanic/manic episodes related to sibutramine treatment were earlier reported in patients who had previous history of bipolar disorder, after sibutramine overdose, after over-the-counter product illegally containing very high dose of sibutramine, together with psychotic symptoms, in organic patient, or after interaction of sibutramine with other drugs.
We report the first case of a patient with clear manic episode, after treatment with recommended dose of sibutramine, without previous history of mood disorders, organic changes or drug interactions, that was followed by episode of depression.
Minimal recommended dose of sibutramine induced manic episode that was the first manifestation of bipolar disorder. The manic episode, associated with sibutramine treatment, was induced in a person without previous history of mood disorders. Potential risks associated with the treatment of obesity using sibutramine warn physicians to be alert not only to common and cardiovascular but also to psychiatric adverse effects. A careful assessment of patient's mental state and detailed psychiatric family history should be done before sibutramine treatment. In patients with a family history for bipolar disorder the use of even minimal dose of sibutramine should be contraindicated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent major findings from studies of SLC6A4 and its corresponding protein, the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) in humans, rodents and non-human primates indicate that combinations of SLC6A4 non-coding 5', 3' UTRs and intronic regions plus coding variants acting together can change 5HT transport as much as 40-fold in vitro. In vivo, SLC6A4 variants in humans and other species lead to marked physiological changes, despite mitigating neurodevelopmental adaptations in 5-HT receptors plus compensatory alterations in 5-HT synthesis and metabolism. Polymorphisms in SLC6A4 are associated with differences in emotional, endocrine, and personality characteristics as well as many diseases. This gene, in combinations with gene×gene (G×G) and gene×environment (G×E) interactions nonetheless remains incompletely understood, with some association findings remaining controversial. Considering its primary importance in the regulation and function of the entire serotonergic system (as evidenced by the consequences of SERT-mediated reuptake inhibition by SRIs like fluoxetine in humans and of genetically engineered changes in mice and rats), it seems likely that SLC6A4 and SERT will remain areas of high interest in our field's attempts to better understand and treat 5-HT-related disorders.
Current Opinion in Pharmacology 03/2011; 11(1):3-10. DOI:10.1016/j.coph.2011.02.008 · 4.60 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.