Immigration from developing regions to Western countries has resulted in an increased rate of non-B subtypes in the HIV population. However, it is unclear whether these HIV variants remain confined to foreigners or are already spreading among natives. Since many immigrants come from regions in which hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are endemic, HIV-hepatitis coinfection might be more frequent in newly diagnosed HIV persons. Herein, we report changes in the prevalence and distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in Madrid, Spain over the past 10 years as well as the rate of chronic HBV and HCV coinfection in 1854 newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals. Overall 18.2% carried HIV-1 non-B subtypes, although the prevalence increased over time reaching a peak of 19.4% in the last period (2007-2010). The most common non-B variants were CRF02_AG (37%), G (12%), A (9.9%), and C (7.8%). In native Spaniards the rate of non-B subtypes increased from 1.5% in 2000-2002 to 7.2% in 2003-2006 and to 11.4% in 2007-2010 (p = 0.04). Chronic hepatitis B and C were found, respectively, in 4.2% and 8.3% of the study population. While the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B has remained fairly stable over time across distinct populations, the rate of chronic HCV infection has experienced a significant decline, mainly in native Spaniards as a result of a reduction in intravenous drug use. In summary, the prevalence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes is rising in newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Spain, including the native population. In contrast, the rate of HBV coinfection remains unchanged and the rate of HCV coinfection has declined.
"This marked increase in individuals infected with non-B HIV-1 subtype in our society may have a direct impact on the spread of these subtypes among Spanish native individuals in addition to the changes in appropriate treatment regimes due to differences in genetic sequences amongst the different HIV-1 strains. These results are similar to those found in studies conducted in other regions in Spain, Madrid and Canary Islands [19,20,22]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most of the non-B HIV-1 subtypes are predominant in Sub-Saharan Africa and India although they have been found worldwide. In the last decade, immigration from these areas has increased considerably in Spain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of non-B subtypes circulating in a cohort of HIV-1-infected immigrants in Seville, Southern Spain and to identify drug resistance-associated mutations.
Complete protease and first 220 codons of the reverse transcriptase coding regions were amplified and sequenced by population sequencing. HIV-1 subtypes were determined using Stanford University Drug Resistance Database, and phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing multiple reported sequences. Drug resistance mutations were defined according to the International AIDS Society-USA.
From 2000 to 2010 a total of 1,089 newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected patients were enrolled in our cohort. Of these, 121 were immigrants, of which 98 had ethical approval and informed consent to include in our study. Twenty-nine immigrants (29/98, 29.6%) were infected with non-B subtypes, of which 15/29 (51.7%) were CRF02-AG, mostly from Sub-Saharan Africa, and 2/29 (6.9%) were CRF01-AE from Eastern Europe. A, C, F, J and G subtypes from Eastern Europe, Central-South America and Sub-Saharan Africa were also present. Some others harboured recombinant forms CRF02-AG/CRF01-AE, CRF2-AG/G and F/B, B/C, and K/G, in PR and RT-coding regions. Patients infected with non-B subtypes showed a high frequency of minor protease inhibitor resistance mutations, M36I, L63P, and K20R/I. Only one patient, CRF02_AG, showed major resistance mutation L90M. Major RT inhibitor resistance mutations K70R and A98G were present in one patient with subtype G, L100I in one patient with CRF01_AE, and K103N in another patient with CRF01_AE. Three patients had other mutations such as V118I, E138A and V90I.
The circulation of non-B subtypes has significantly increased in Southern Spain during the last decade, with 29.6% prevalence, in association with demographic changes among immigrants. This could be an issue in the treatment and management of these patients. Resistance mutations have been detected in these patients with a prevalence of 7% among treatment-naïve patients compared with the 21% detected among patients under HAART or during treatment interruption.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Healthcare expenditures incurred by the Health Service for HIV-infected patients have not been reported in Italy.
To present health care costs for HIV-infected patients in the Lombardy Region, in 2004-2007, to determine the clinical characteristics of HIV infection associated with costs.
Retrospective, observational, budget impact study, based on information collected for the period 2004-2007, including hospitalizations, outpatient services, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and non-HAART drug utilization. Inclusion criteria includes: confirmed HIV infection, age ≥18 years, resident in Lombardy Region, and followed at the "L. Sacco" Hospital in Milan from 2004 to 2007.
The mean total cost per year to provide healthcare to HIV-positive patients was rather stable (€ 9658.36 in 2004 and € 9745.65 in 2007 (+0.90%)); HAART represented more than 60% of the total cost. We found that hepatitis C virus coinfection was related to higher costs (€ 11,003.45 vs. € 8896.06), as well as CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm (€ 12,681.36 vs. € 9594.11 and € 9450.36 in 200-499 and ≥500 cells/mm, respectively). The mean total cost of HIV health care was higher in patients who initiated antiretroviral treatment before 1997 than in those who started after 1996.
The mean total cost per year to provide health care to HIV-positive patients was stable during the period 2004-2007, with an increase of HAART percentage impact on the total cost. Several clinical characteristics of HIV-infected patients were significantly associated with cost variation.
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