Analysis of A to I editing of miRNA in macrophages exposed to Salmonella.
ABSTRACT The main mediator of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response in macrophages is activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). This generates interferon-beta (INF-beta) production that stimulates increased expression of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1. To determine if there is an increase in RNA editing in mature miRNA in response to TLR4 activation upon Salmonella infection of macrophages we analyzed small RNA deep sequencing data. Interestingly, we found that direct infection of macrophage cell lines with Salmonella does not result in an increase of edited mature miRNA. Thus, despite elevated levels of ADAR1 during TLR4 activation of macrophages mediated by Salmonella infection, ADAR1 does not result in redirection of miRNA. The most common consequence of ADAR activity on miRNA is a reduction in the mature miRNA level due to interference with miRNA processing of pri-miRNA. However, we found very few miRNAs with reductions in level, and no significant difference between miRNAs previously reported to be edited and those reported to be not edited. In particular, we did not see significant decrease in mir-22 and mir-142, nor editing of pri-mir-22 or pri-mir-142 in infected RAW macrophages. Thus, ADAR1 has very little, if any, effect on the miRNA machinery following TL4 activation by Salmonella infection.