Article

NTM and NR3C2 polymorphisms influencing intelligence: Family-based association studies

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Arts and Sciences, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 4.03). 10/2010; 35(1):154-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.10.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Family, twin, and adoption studies have indicated that human intelligence quotient (IQ) has significant genetic components. We performed a low-density genome-wide association analysis with a family-based association test to identify genetic variants influencing IQ, as measured by Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale full-score IQ (FSIQ). We examined 11,120 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Affymetrix GeneChips 10K mapping array genotyped in 292 nuclear families from Genetic Analysis Workshop 14, a subset from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). A replication analysis was performed using part of International Multi-Center ADHD Genetics Project (IMAGE) dataset. Twenty-two SNPs were identified as having suggestive associations with IQ (p<10(-3)) in the COGA sample and eleven of the SNPs were located within known genes. In particular, NTM at 11q25 (rs411280, p = 0.000764) and NR3C2 at 4q31.1 (rs3846329, p = 0.000675) were two novel genes which have not been associated with IQ in other studies. It has been reported that NTM might play a role in late-onset Alzheimer disease while NR3C2 may be associated with cognitive function and major depression. The associations of these two genes were well-replicated by single-marker and haplotype analyses in the IMAGE sample. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that chromosome regions of 11q25 and 4q31.1 contain genes affecting IQ. This study will serve as a resource for replication in other populations.

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    • "treatment ( Garson , 2013 ; Ma et al . , 2012 ) . The autoregressive covariance structure was selected because the correlations between CSSA evaluations ( at times 1e4 ) declined with time . The IQ and skin color were tested as potential confounders . IQ was included since there are studies showing as - sociations of NR3C2 SNPs with intelligence ( Pan et al . , 2011 ; van der Voorn et al . , 2015 ) . As recommended in the literature , a variable is considered a confounder when it is associated with both variables of interest ( association with both the outcome and studied SNPs for a P - value < 0 . 2 ) ( Cordell , 2009 ; Maldonado and Greenland , 1993 ) ."
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