Hyperchlorhidrosis Caused by Homozygous Mutation in CA12, Encoding Carbonic Anhydrase XII

National Institute for Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
The American Journal of Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 10.93). 10/2010; 87(5):713-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.10.008
Source: PubMed


Excessive chloride secretion in sweat (hyperchlorhidrosis), leading to a positive sweat test, is most commonly indicative of cystic fibrosis yet is found also in conjunction with various metabolic, endocrine, and dermatological disorders. There is conflicting evidence regarding the existence of autosomal-recessive hyperchlorhidrosis. We now describe a consanguineous Israeli Bedouin kindred with autosomal-recessive hyperchlohidrosis whose sole symptoms are visible salt precipitates after sweating, a preponderance to hyponatremic dehydration, and poor feeding and slow weight gain at infancy. Through genome-wide linkage analysis, we demonstrate that the phenotype is due to a homozygous mutation in CA12, encoding carbonic anhydrase XII. The mutant (c.427G>A [p.Glu143Lys]) protein showed 71% activity of the wild-type enzyme for catalyzing the CO₂ hydration to bicarbonate and H(+), and it bound the clinically used sulfonamide inhibitor acetazolamide with high affinity (K(I) of 10 nM). Unlike the wild-type enzyme, which is not inhibited by chloride, bromide, or iodide (K(I)s of 73-215 mM), the mutant is inhibited in the submicromolar range by these anions (K(I)s of 0.37-0.73 mM).

Download full-text


Available from: Daniel Landau, Oct 07, 2015
26 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif) sustains self-renewal of mouse embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells by activating Jak kinase and the transcription factor Stat3. Here we investigate whether Jak/Stat3 may also contribute to induction of pluripotency. EpiSCs derived from postimplantation embryos express low levels of Lif receptor and Stat3. We introduced into EpiSCs a Jak/Stat3 activating receptor (GY118F) responsive to granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf). On transfer to ground state culture, in which MAPK signaling and glycogen synthase kinase are inhibited, Gcsf induced transcriptional resetting and functional reprogramming. Activation of a tamoxifen-regulatable fusion, Stat3ER(T2), also converted EpiSCs into chimera-competent iPSCs. We exploited GY118F to increase Jak/Stat3 activity during somatic cell reprogramming. Incompletely reprogrammed cells derived from neural stem cells or fibroblasts responded to Gcsf with elevated frequencies of progression to ground state pluripotency. These findings indicate that Jak/Stat3 participate directly in molecular reprogramming and that activation of this pathway is a limiting component.
    Cell stem cell 09/2010; 7(3):319-28. DOI:10.1016/j.stem.2010.06.022 · 22.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genetic disorders of excessive salt loss from sweat glands have been observed in pseudohypoaldosteronism type I (PHA) and cystic fibrosis that result from mutations in genes encoding epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) subunits and the transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), respectively. We identified a novel autosomal recessive form of isolated salt wasting in sweat, which leads to severe infantile hyponatremic dehydration. Three affected individuals from a small Bedouin clan presented with failure to thrive, hyponatremic dehydration and hyperkalemia with isolated sweat salt wasting. Using positional cloning, we identified the association of a Glu143Lys mutation in carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12) with the disease. Carbonic anhydrase is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form a bicarbonate anion and a proton. Glu143 in CA12 is essential for zinc coordination in this metalloenzyme and lowering of the protein-metal affinity reduces its catalytic activity. This is the first presentation of an isolated loss of salt from sweat gland mimicking PHA, associated with a mutation in the CA12 gene not previously implicated in human disorders. Our data demonstrate the importance of bicarbonate anion and proton production on salt concentration in sweat and its significance for sodium homeostasis.
    Human Genetics 12/2010; 129(4):397-405. DOI:10.1007/s00439-010-0930-4 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ability to engineer novel proteins using the principles of molecular structure and energetics is a stringent test of our basic understanding of how proteins fold and maintain structure. The design of protein self-assembly has the potential to impact many fields of biology from molecular recognition to cell signaling to biomaterials. Most progress in computational design of protein self-assembly has focused on α-helical systems, exploring ways to concurrently optimize the stability and specificity of a target state. Applying these methods to collagen self-assembly is very challenging, due to fundamental differences in folding and structure of α- versus triple-helices. Here, we explore various computational methods for designing stable and specific oligomeric systems, with a focus on α-helix and collagen self-assembly.
    Methods in enzymology 01/2011; 487:575-93. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-381270-4.00020-2 · 2.09 Impact Factor
Show more