Characteristics of Children With Elevated Symptoms of Mania: The Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) Study

Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.5). 10/2010; 71(12):1664-72. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.09m05859yel
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study is to examine differences in psychiatric symptomatology, diagnoses, demographics, functioning, and psychotropic medication exposure in children with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM) compared to youth without ESM. This article describes the initial demographic information, diagnostic and symptom prevalence, and medication exposure for the LAMS cohort that will be followed longitudinally.
Guardians of consecutively ascertained new outpatients 6 to 12 years of age presenting for treatment at one of 10 university-affiliated mental health centers were asked to complete the Parent General Behavior Inventory-10-Item Mania Scale (PGBI-10M). Patients with scores ≥ 12 on the PGBI-10M (ESM+) and a matched sample of patients who screened negative (ESM-) were invited to participate. Patients were enrolled from December 13, 2005, to December 18, 2008.
707 children (621 ESM+, 86 ESM-; mean [SD] age = 9.4 [2.0] years) were evaluated. The ESM+ group, compared to the ESM- group, more frequently met DSM-IV criteria for a mood disorder (P < .001), bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD; P < .001), and disruptive behavior disorders (P < .01). Furthermore, they showed poorer overall functioning and more severe manic, depressive, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, disruptive behavioral, and anxiety symptoms. Nevertheless, rates of BPSD were relatively low in the ESM+ group (25%), with almost half of these BPSD patients (12.1% of ESM+ patients) meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. ESM+ children with BPSD had significantly more of the following: current prescriptions for antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and anticonvulsants (P < .001 for each); psychiatric hospitalizations (P < .001); and biological parents with elevated mood (P = .001 for mothers, P < .013 for fathers). ESM+ children with BPSD were also lower functioning compared to ESM+ children without BPSD.
Although ESM+ was associated with higher rates of BPSD than ESM-, 75% of ESM+ children did not meet criteria for BPSD. Results suggest that longitudinal assessment is needed to examine which factors are associated with diagnostic evolution to BPSD in children with elevated symptoms of mania.

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    • "This allowed us to control in BO for risk for future non-BD psychopathology, and for any potential effects of living with parents with a range of co-morbid non-BD psychopathology. A total of 24 HC were recruited from the healthy comparison youth group of the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study (Findling et al. 2010; Horwitz et al. 2010) at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center/Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, a parallel study examining neural circuitry functioning in youth with behavioral and emotional dysregulation. One HC was recruited from the BIOS (Birmaher et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) (BO) are at higher risk of BD than offspring of parents with non-BD psychopathology (NBO), although both groups are at higher risk than offspring of psychiatrically healthy parents (HC) for other affective and psychiatric disorders. Abnormal functioning in reward circuitry has been demonstrated previously in individuals with BD. We aimed to determine whether activation and functional connectivity in this circuitry during risky decision-making differentiated BO, NBO and HC. Method: BO (n = 29; mean age = 13.8 years; 14 female), NBO (n = 28; mean age = 13.9 years; 12 female) and HC (n = 23; mean age = 13.7 years; 11 female) were scanned while performing a number-guessing reward task. Of the participants, 11 BO and 12 NBO had current non-BD psychopathology; five BO and four NBO were taking psychotropic medications. Results: A 3 (group) × 2 (conditions: win-control/loss-control) analysis of variance revealed a main effect of group on right frontal pole activation: BO showed significantly greater activation than HC. There was a significant main effect of group on functional connectivity between the bilateral ventral striatum and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (Z > 3.09, cluster-p < 0.05): BO showed significantly greater negative functional connectivity than other participants. These between-group differences remained after removing youth with psychiatric disorders and psychotropic medications from analyses. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that reward circuitry activation and functional connectivity distinguish BO from NBO and HC. The fact that the pattern of findings remained when comparing healthy BO v. healthy NBO v. HC suggests that these neuroimaging measures may represent trait-level neurobiological markers conferring either risk for, or protection against, BD in youth.
    Psychological Medicine 09/2015; DOI:10.1017/S003329171500166X · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    • "At baseline assessment, PGBI-10M scores were associated with the risk of having BPSD (Frazier et al. 2011), behavioral extremes, poor overall functioning, and high risk for developing severe psychopathology other than BPSD (e.g. other mood disorders, anxiety disorders , ADHD and disruptive disorders) (Findling et al. 2010; Horwitz et al. 2010). The second phase (LAMS2) is an ongoing study that includes neuroimaging and neurocognitive evaluations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging measures of behavioral and emotional dysregulation can yield biomarkers denoting developmental trajectories of psychiatric pathology in youth. We aimed to identify functional abnormalities in emotion regulation (ER) neural circuitry associated with different behavioral and emotional dysregulation trajectories using latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and neuroimaging. A total of 61 youth (9-17 years) from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study, and 24 healthy control youth, completed an emotional face n-back ER task during scanning. LCGA was performed on 12 biannual reports completed over 5 years of the Parent General Behavior Inventory 10-Item Mania Scale (PGBI-10M), a parental report of the child's difficulty regulating positive mood and energy. There were two latent classes of PGBI-10M trajectories: high and decreasing (HighD; n = 22) and low and decreasing (LowD; n = 39) course of behavioral and emotional dysregulation over the 12 time points. Task performance was >89% in all youth, but more accurate in healthy controls and LowD versus HighD (p < 0.001). During ER, LowD had greater activity than HighD and healthy controls in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a key ER region, and greater functional connectivity than HighD between the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (p's < 0.001, corrected). Patterns of function in lateral prefrontal cortical-amygdala circuitry in youth denote the severity of the developmental trajectory of behavioral and emotional dysregulation over time, and may be biological targets to guide differential treatment and novel treatment development for different levels of behavioral and emotional dysregulation in youth.
    Psychological Medicine 01/2014; 27(12):1-13. DOI:10.1017/S0033291714000087 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    • "The interviewer then probed for the names of additional medications until the respondent said there were no other medications; respondents were not directly asked to report whether youth took specific, named medications. Medications were grouped into medication classes for the purpose of this analysis using a standardized approach we have used in previous work (Findling et al. 2010; Frazier et al. 2010). A count variable of number of medications was also constructed by summing the number of medications the caregiver named. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many youths with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) benefit from psychotropic medication treatment of co-morbid symptom patterns consistent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The lack of clear indications and algorithms to direct clinical practice has led to a very poor understanding of overall medication use for these youths. The present study examined the prevalence of psychotropic medication use compared across individuals with an ASD without a caregiver-reported ADHD diagnosis (ASD-only), ADHD without ASD (ADHD-only), and an ASD with co-morbid ADHD (ASD+ADHD). Correlates of medication use were also examined. Data on psychotropic medication from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, a nationally representative study of adolescents ages 13-17 in special education, were used to compare the prevalence of medication use across the three groups, overall and by class. Separate logistic regression models were constructed for each group to examine the correlates of psychotropic medication use. Poisson regression models were used to examine correlates of the number of medications. Youths with ASD+ADHD had the highest rates of use (58.2%), followed by youths with ADHD-only (49.0%) and youths with ASD-only (34.3%). Youths with an ASD, both ASD-only and ASD+ADHD, used medications across a variety of medication classes, whereas stimulants were dominant among youths with ADHD-only. African American youths with ASD-only and with ASD+ADHD were less likely to receive medication than white youths, whereas race was not associated with medication use in the ADHD-only group. Clearer practice parameters for ADHD have likely contributed to more consistency in treatment, whereas treatment for ASD reflects a trial and error approach based on associated symptom patterns. Additional studies examining the treatment of core and associated ASD symptoms are needed to guide pharmacologic treatment of these youths. Interventions targeting African American youths with ASD and the physicians who serve them are also warranted.
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