Article

Systemic treatment with liver X receptor agonists raises apolipoprotein E, cholesterol, and amyloid-β peptides in the cerebral spinal fluid of rats.

Department of Neurosymptomatic Disorders, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA. .
Molecular Neurodegeneration (Impact Factor: 4.01). 10/2010; 5:44. DOI: 10.1186/1750-1326-5-44
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a major cholesterol transport protein found in association with brain amyloid from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and the ε4 allele of apoE is a genetic risk factor for AD. Previous studies have shown that apoE forms a stable complex with amyloid β (Aβ) peptides in vitro and that the state of apoE lipidation influences the fate of brain Aβ, i.e., lipid poor apoE promotes Aβ aggregation/deposition while fully lipidated apoE favors Aβ degradation/clearance. In the brain, apoE levels and apoE lipidation are regulated by the liver X receptors (LXRs).
We investigated the hypothesis that increased apoE levels and lipidation induced by LXR agonists facilitates Aβ efflux from the brain to the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). We also examined if the brain expression of major apoE receptors potentially involved in apoE-mediated Aβ clearance was altered by LXR agonists. ApoE, cholesterol, Aβ40, and Aβ42 levels were all significantly elevated in the CSF of rats after only 3 days of treatment with LXR agonists. A significant reduction in soluble brain Aβ40 levels was also detected after 6 days of LXR agonist treatment.
Our novel findings suggest that central Aβ lowering caused by LXR agonists appears to involve an apoE/cholesterol-mediated transport of Aβ to the CSF and that differences between the apoE isoforms in mediating this clearance pathway may explain why individuals carrying one or two copies of APOE ε4 have increased risk for AD.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
113 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative process characterized, in part, by the accumulation of beta-amyloid proteins (Aβ) in the brain. Evidence now suggests that the excessive Aβ accumulation is the result of impaired clearance from the brain. Recent studies have indicated that retinoid X receptor (RXR) activation stimulates the metabolic clearance of Aβ and rapidly reverses Aβ-induced behavioral deficits, doing so in an apoE-dependent manner. Previously, we reported that soluble apoE (i.e., not bound to Aβ) facilitated Aβ transit across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). As Aβ clearance from the brain involves both metabolic and BBB-mediated processes, the current studies investigated the impact of RXR stimulation on Aβ clearance across the BBB. Treatment with RXR agonists increased Aβ clearance across the BBB both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, this processes appeared to involve apoE as RXR agonism did not stimulate Aβ BBB clearance when apoE was absent. Thus, RXR activation could mitigate Aβ brain burden by promoting both the metabolic and BBB clearance of Aβ, offering a novel approach to the treatment of AD.
    Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 08/2012; · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although the precise cause of Alzheimer's disease is not known, the β-amyloid peptide chains of 40-42 amino acids are suspected to contribute to the disease. The β-amyloid precursor protein is found on many types of cell membranes, and the action of secretases (β and γ) on this precursor protein normally releases the β-amyloids at a high rate into the plasma and the cerebrospinal fluid. However, the concentrations of the β-amyloids in the plasma and the spinal fluid vary considerably between laboratories. The β-amyloids adsorb in the nanomolar concentration range to receptors on neuronal and glial cells. The β-amyloids are internalized, become folded in the β-folded or β-pleated shape, and then stack on each other to form long fibrils and aggregates known as plaques. The β-amyloids likely act as monomers, dimers, or multimers on cell membranes to interfere with neurotransmission and memory before the plaques build up. Treatment strategies include inhibitors of β- and γ-secretase, as well as drugs and physiological compounds to prevent aggregation of the amyloids. Several immune approaches and a cholesterol-lowering strategy are also being tested to remove the β-amyloids.
    Synapse 06/2011; 65(12):1289-97. · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The structural integrity of cerebral vessels is compromised during ageing. Abnormal amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the vasculature can accelerate age-related pathologies. The cerebrovascular response associated with ageing and microvascular Aβ deposition was defined using quantitative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis. Over 650 proteins were quantified in vessel-enriched fractions from the brains of 3 and 9 month-old wild-type (WT) and Tg-SwDI mice. Sixty-five proteins were significantly increased in older WT animals and included several basement membrane proteins (nidogen-1, basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein, laminin subunit gamma-1 precursor and collagen alpha-2(IV) chain preproprotein). Twenty-four proteins were increased and twenty-one decreased in older Tg-SwDI mice. Of these, increases in Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and high temperature requirement serine protease-1 (HTRA1) and decreases in spliceosome and RNA-binding proteins were the most prominent. Only six shared proteins were altered in both 9-month old WT and Tg-SwDI animals. The age-related proteomic response in the cerebrovasculature was distinctly different in the presence of microvascular Aβ deposition. Proteins found differentially expressed within the WT and Tg-SwDI animals give greater insight to the mechanisms behind age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction and pathologies and may provide novel therapeutic targets.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e89970. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

View
16 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014