Higher Urine Volume Results in Additional Renal Iodine Loss
ABSTRACT For some endocrine and nutritional biomarkers, for example, cortisol and vitamin B(12), significant associations between 24-hour renal analyte excretion and the respective 24-hour urine volume (U-Vol) have been reported. Therefore, our objective was to investigate whether 24-hour U-Vol (a marker of fluid intake) is also a relevant influencing factor of absolute daily iodine excretion.
Urinary iodine excretion rates were measured in repeatedly collected 24-hour urine samples of (i) 9 healthy women participating in a controlled diet experiment with constant iodine intake and (ii) 204 healthy free-living adolescents (aged 13-18 years) who performed the respective urine collection during 2003-2008. Associations between U-Vol (L) and renal iodine excretion (μg/24 h) were investigated cross sectionally (multiple linear regression model, PROC GLM) and longitudinally (repeated-measures regression models, PROC MIXED). The major iodine sources in the adolescent's diet (iodized salt, milk, fish, eggs, and meat) were controlled for.
Urinary iodine excretion was significantly associated with 24-hour U-Vol in all performed fully adjusted regression models. A 1-L increase of U-Vol predicted an additional 15.0 μg/day (adolescents, 95% confidence interval: [9.8, 20.0], p < 0.0001) and 16.5 μg/day (women, 95% confidence interval: [9.2, 23.7], p = 0.0002) increase in iodine excretion. The longitudinal analysis in adolescents revealed a stronger relation of iodine excretion with U-Vol in girls than in boys (β = 17.1 vs. β = 10.5).
A high fluid consumption, and thus a high U-Vol, could lead to an additional renal iodine loss that obviously cannot be compensated by the iodine contents of non-milk-based beverages, reported to amount to ∼4 μg/L, on average. For specific research questions using the biomarker 24-hour urinary iodine excretion, U-Vol should therefore be considered as a potential confounder.
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ABSTRACT: Although the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is a good indicator of iodine status in populations, there is no established biomarker for individual iodine status. If the UIC were to be used to assess individuals, it is unclear how many repeat urine collections would be needed and if the collections should be spot samples or 24-h samples. In a prospective, longitudinal, 15-mo study, healthy Swiss women (n = 22) aged 52-77 y collected repeated 24-h urine samples (total n = 341) and corresponding fasting, second-void, morning spot urine samples (n = 177). From the UIC in spot samples, 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was extrapolated based on the age- and sex-adjusted iodine:creatinine ratio. Measured UIE in 24-h samples, estimated 24-h UIE, and UIC in spot samples were (geometric mean ± SD) 103 ± 28 μg/24 h, 86 ± 33 μg/24 h, and 68 ± 28 μg/L, respectively, with no seasonal differences. Intra-individual variation (mean CV) was comparable for measured UIE (32%) and estimated UIE (33%). The CV tended to be higher for the spot UIC (38%) than for the estimated 24-h UIE (33%) (P = 0.12). In this population, 10 spot urine samples or 24-h urine samples were needed to assess individual iodine status with 20% precision. Spot samples would likely be preferable because of their ease of collection. However, the large number of repeated urine samples needed to estimate individual iodine status is a major limitation and emphasizes the need for further investigation of more practical biomarkers of individual iodine status.Journal of Nutrition 09/2011; 141(11):2049-54. DOI:10.3945/jn.111.144071 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe actual data on intake, sources, age and time trends of urinary sodium excretion and to analyze the potential association between urinary sodium excretion and hydration status respective beverage consumption in a sample of healthy German children and adolescents. Data of 1575 24 h-urine samples and weighed dietary records of 499 children (249 boys) aged 4-18 years of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study collected in 2003-2009 were analyzed using linear mixed effects regression models. Free water reserve (FWR, measured urine volume (ml/24 h) minus the obligatory urine volume (ml/24 h)) was used as a marker for hydration status. Urinary sodium excretion was between 1.4 g/day and 3.2 g/day, showing a positive age trend but remained stable during the study period. In girls, there was a significant positive association between salt excretion and FWR (p = 0.04). Per g/MJ urinary sodium excretion, beverage intake increased by 0.05 g/MJ (boys) or 0.08 g/MJ (girls). Hydration status was not affected by salt intake in this sample of healthy children and adolescents in a western life style, due to a compensatory increase in beverage consumption.Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 09/2011; 31(1):78-84. DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2011.08.014 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Worldwide, the iodisation of salt has clearly improved iodine status. In industrialised countries, iodised salt added to processed food contributes most to iodine supply. Yet it is unclear as to what extent changes in the latter may affect the iodine status of populations. Between 2004 and 2009, 24-h urinary iodine excretions (UIE) were repeatedly measured in 278 German children (6 to 12 years old) of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study (n 707). Na excretion measurements and simultaneously collected 3-d weighed dietary records provided data on intakes of the most important dietary sources of iodine in the children's diet. Actual trends of UIE (2004-9) and contributions of relevant food groups were analysed by mixed linear regression models. Longitudinal regression analysis showed a plateau of UIE in 2004-6; afterwards, UIE significantly decreased till 2009 (P = 0·01; median 24-h UIE in 2004-6: 85·6 μg/d; 2009: 80·4 μg/d). Median urinary iodine concentration fell below the WHO criteria for iodine sufficiency of 100 μg/l in 2007-9. Salt, milk, fish and egg intake (g/d) were significant predictors of UIE (P < 0·005); and the main sources of iodine were salt and milk (48 and 38 %, respectively). The present data hint at a beginning deterioration in the iodine status of German schoolchildren. A decreased use of iodised salt in industrially produced foods may be one possible reason for this development. Because of the generally known risks for cognitive impairment due to even mild iodine deficits in children, a more widespread use of iodised salt, especially in industrially processed foods, has to be promoted.The British journal of nutrition 12/2011; 106(11):1749-56. DOI:10.1017/S0007114511005502 · 3.34 Impact Factor