Preoperative prediction of sepsis after aortic surgery

Discipline of Surgery, The University of Adelaide, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, South Australia.
ANZ Journal of Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.12). 11/2010; 80(11):772-3. DOI: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2010.05501.x
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that cardiac complications (myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, fatal arrhythmias) are no longer the leading cause of death after elective aortic reconstructions. The medical records of all elective infrarenal aortic reconstructions performed between January 1982 and June 1994 were retrospectively reviewed. All perioperative deaths were analyzed to determine the cause of death and were compared with a subset of 266 survivors to identify any associated preoperative or intraoperative factors. Seven hundred twenty-two aortic reconstructions were performed for aneurysmal or occlusive disease, and there were 44 deaths (overall mortality rate of 6.1%). The mortality rate after aortic reconstruction alone was 4.9% and increased with the addition of renal (8.9%, p = 0.16) or lower extremity vascular procedures (15.8%, p = 0.01). Multisystem organ failure (MSOF) was the cause of death in 56.8%, of the patients (3.5% overall mortality rate) followed by cardiac events in 25% (1.5% overall mortality rate). Visceral organ dysfunction was the most common cause of MSOF leading to death in 14 patients (56.0%), and postoperative pneumonia was responsible for the fatal MSOF in nine patients (36.0%). Patient age, history of myocardial infarction/congestive heart failure, ejection fraction less than 50%, duration of operative time, and performance of additional procedures were associated with increased operative mortality rates by multivariate analysis. MSOF, predominantly from visceral organ dysfunction, was the leading cause of death after elective infrarenal aortic reconstruction. The risk of MSOF and operative death increases with the complexity of the procedure and the number of comorbid conditions.
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a prospective case series study to investigate the causes of and factors influencing morbidity and mortality in 102 consecutive patients after elective infrarenal abdominal aneurysm (AAA) surgery between 1992 and 1995. Preoperative factors (demographics, risk factor indexes, electrocardiographic findings, ejection fraction, and stress imaging scans were indicated) and intraoperative factors (duration of surgery, size of aneurysm, complications, units of blood transfused, and additional procedures performed) were recorded. Patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for at least 24 hours and followed for 30 days postoperatively. The mortality rate was 4.9%, due in all cases to multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Death was preceded by colon ischemia (two patients), intraabdominal bleeding (two patients), or sepsis (one patient). Only the preoperative blood urea nitrogen correlated with mortality (p = 0.042). Complications occurred in 59% of patients in the ICU and involved the cardiovascular system in 83% of them (heart rate > 90 bpm in 49%). On multivariate analysis, only duration of surgery was associated with ICU complications (p = 0.018). No complication resulted in mortality. Ward complications occurred in 13%, and 5% of these patients required readmission to the ICU. Although cardiac complications are considered the major cause of mortality after infrarenal AAA surgery, all five deaths in the present series were due to MODS. Preoperative screening should be more selective, and intraoperative and postoperative care should be stressed.
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    ABSTRACT: Arteriosclerosis is increasingly viewed as an inflammatory disease. The purpose of these analyses was to examine the preoperative white blood cell (WBC) count, a generalized marker of inflammation, and to assess its association with in-hospital mortality and other adverse outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting. Information was collected prospectively on 11,270 consecutive patients who had isolated coronary artery bypass grafting in northern New England from 1996 through 2000. Patients were divided into five categories based on their preoperative WBC count. Crude and adjusted in-hospital mortality rates and adverse event rates were calculated using logistic regression. Increasing WBC count across its entire range was associated with a linear increase in the mortality rate. This finding was highly significant (p [trend] < 0.001) and persisted after adjustment for patient and disease characteristics. Patients with preoperative WBC of at least 12.0 x 10(9)/L had an adjusted mortality rate 2.8 times higher than those with a WBC less than 6.0 x 10(9)/L (4.8% versus 1.7%). An increasing preoperative WBC count was also significantly associated with increasing rates of perioperative strokes and the need for an intraaortic balloon pump but was not associated with mediastinitis. The preoperative WBC count across its entire observed range is a statistically significant independent predictor of in-hospital death and other adverse outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting. Although the cause of the association between increased WBC count and increased morbidity and mortality is unknown, the preoperative WBC count, which is objectively measured, inexpensive, and always available, can serve as a useful marker to help predict risk before coronary artery bypass grafting.
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