Acute abdominal pain: is there a potential role for MRI in the setting of the emergency department in a patient with renal calculi?
ABSTRACT Acute flank pain is a frequent clinical presentation encountered in emergency departments, and a work-up for obstructive urolithiasis in this setting is a common indication for computed tomography (CT). However, imaging alternatives to CT for the evaluation of renal colic are warranted in some clinical situations, such as younger patients, pregnancy, patients that have undergone multiple prior CT exams and also patients with vague clinical presentations. MRI, although relatively insensitive for the direct detection of urinary calculi, has the ability to detect the secondary effects of obstructive urolithiasis. Using rapid, single shot T2-weighted sequences without and with fat saturation provides an abdominopelvic MR examination that can detect the sequelae of clinically active stone disease, in addition to alternate inflammatory processes that may mimic the symptoms of renal colic. In addition, MR nephro-urography (MRNU) has the ability to provide quantitative analysis of renal function that has the potential to direct clinical management in the setting of obstructing calculi. This review describes the potential utility and limitations of MRI in the emergency setting for diagnosing causes of flank pain and renal colic, particularly in patients with unusual presentations or when an alternative to CT may be warranted.
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Article: MR imaging of renal transplants.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fifty-six MR studies were obtained in 32 renal transplant patients, by using T1-weighted, spin-echo, and inversion-recovery pulse sequences. The findings, particularly the loss of corticomedullary differentiation, and the extent of vascular penetration into the renal parenchyma, were compared with the clinical and histologic diagnosis of transplant rejection. Thirteen MR studies on 11 patients with clinically normal renal transplants demonstrated normal corticomedullary differentiation. Renal vessels extended into the parenchyma in all 11 patients and to the cortex in 38%. In 37 MR studies on 22 patients with a clinical or histologic diagnosis of acute and/or chronic transplant rejection, the corticomedullary differentiation was normal in 8%, faint in 24%, and absent in 68%. Renal parenchymal vessels were visualized in 32%, but extended to the level of the cortex in only 8%. In 68% of the studies with transplant rejection, no parenchymal vessels were seen. When the corticomedullary differentiation was either faint or absent, the vascular pattern was normal in 6%; in 68% of cases no parenchymal vessels could be identified. We conclude the corticomedullary differentiation and the renal vascular pattern are useful parameters in the evaluation of renal transplant rejection.American Journal of Roentgenology 12/1986; 147(5):949-53. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To compare non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and intravenous urography (IVU) in the evaluation of patients who present with acute flank pain and in whom ureteric obstruction is suspected. The findings at non-contrast-enhanced CT and IVU in 20 patients with acute flank pain were compared for the presence or absence of ureteric obstruction and delineation of ureteric stones. Twelve of the 20 patients had non-contrast-enhanced CT and IVU findings consistent with ureteric obstruction. Of these 12 patients, five had a ureteric stone that was demonstrated on both non-contrast-enhanced CT scans and IVU radiographs, six had a stone that was depicted on non-contrast-enhanced CT scans only, and in one patient a stone could not be delineated definitively on either non-contrast-enhanced CT scans or IVU radiographs. Eight patients had findings at non-contrast-enhanced CT and IVU consistent with the absence of obstruction. Non-contrast-enhanced CT is more effective than IVU in precisely identifying ureteric stones and is equally effective as IVU in the determination of the presence or absence of ureteric obstruction.Radiology 04/1995; 194(3):789-94. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors assessed to what extent the commonly used the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent, gadopentetate dimeglumine, crosses the placenta. Eight pregnant rabbits in the third trimester were injected with 0.1 mmol/kg of gadopentetate dimeglumine, and killed 5, 15, 30, or 60 minutes after injection. Placental and fetal tissues were analyzed for gadolinium content. Placental concentrations of gadolinium were initially high (16.6 +/- 3.4 micrograms/gram) and then declined with a biexponential pattern. Initial gadolinium levels in the fetal organs were low and remained so except for the fetal kidneys, which showed increased levels of gadolinium from 4.3 +/- 1.1 micrograms/gram at 5 minutes to 6.8 +/- 1.8 micrograms/gram at 60 minutes. The results indicate that gadolinium does cross the rabbit placenta, and that concentrations in the placenta and the fetal urinary tract are sufficient for imaging as well as possible fetal toxicity.Investigative Radiology 10/1993; 28(9):828-30. · 5.46 Impact Factor