Carotid artery stenting in a patient with internal carotid artery stenosis and ipsilateral persistent primitive hypoglossal artery presenting with transient ischemia of the vertebrobasilar system: case report.
ABSTRACT A 62-year-old man experienced transient episodes of vertigo associated with left upper extremity weakness. Cerebral angiography showed 75% right internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and divergence of a persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) distal to the stenosis. The area of stenosis was at a high position and he had a past medical history of congestive heart failure, which contraindicated carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Therefore, carotid artery stenting (CAS) was performed with single distal balloon protection. The stenotic area was restored and he was discharged without suffering recurrent attacks. CAS may be an effective alternative treatment to CEA to prevent further ischemic attacks in the posterior circulation in patients with PPHA. CAS using simple embolic protection devices is possible if the distance between the distal end of the ICA stenosis and the origin of the PPHA is sufficiently long.
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ABSTRACT: The persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) is a rare fetal variant of carotid-basilar anastomosis that increases the risk of ischemia and embolic infarction within the posterior cerebral circulation in patients with carotid stenosis proximal to the origin of the PPHA. A man presented with severe stenosis of the right internal carotid artery with extension to the origin of a PPHA. The area of stenosis was at a high position, which contraindicated carotid endarterectomy. Therefore, stenting was performed with proximal reversal of flow embolic protection. The unique anatomic and technical challenges associated with this case are reviewed in detail.Journal of vascular surgery. 05/2014;