Liver X receptor (LXR) regulates human adipocyte lipolysis.
ABSTRACT The Liver X receptor (LXR) is an important regulator of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in humans and mice. We have recently shown that activation of LXR regulates cellular fuel utilization in adipocytes. In contrast, the role of LXR in human adipocyte lipolysis, the major function of human white fat cells, is not clear. In the present study, we stimulated in vitro differentiated human and murine adipocytes with the LXR agonist GW3965 and observed an increase in basal lipolysis. Microarray analysis of human adipocyte mRNA following LXR activation revealed an altered gene expression of several lipolysis-regulating proteins, which was also confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. We show that expression and intracellular localization of perilipin1 (PLIN1) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are affected by GW3965. Although LXR activation does not influence phosphorylation status of HSL, HSL activity is required for the lipolytic effect of GW3965. This effect is abolished by PLIN1 knockdown. In addition, we demonstrate that upon activation, LXR binds to the proximal regions of the PLIN1 and HSL promoters. By selective knock-down of either LXR isoform, we show that LXRα is the major isoform mediating the lipolysis-related effects of LXR. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that activation of LXRα up-regulates basal human adipocyte lipolysis. This is at least partially mediated through LXR binding to the PLIN1 promoter and down-regulation of PLIN1 expression.
- SourceAvailable from: Marion Korach-André[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The liver X receptors (LXRs) play a key role in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism but are also important regulators of glucose metabolism. Recently, LXRs have been proposed as a glucose sensor affecting LXR-dependent gene expression. We challenged wild-type (WT) and LXRαβ(-/-) mice with a normal diet (ND) or a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD). Magnetic resonance imaging showed different fat distribution between WT and LXRαβ(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, gonadal (GL) adipocyte volume decreased on HCD compared with ND in WT mice, whereas it slightly increased in LXRαβ(-/-) mice. Interestingly, insulin-stimulated lipogenesis of isolated GL fat cells was reduced on HCD compared with ND in LXRαβ(-/-) mice, whereas no changes were observed in WT mice. Net de novo lipogenesis (DNL) calculated from Vo(2) and Vco(2) was significantly higher in LXRαβ(-/-) than in WT mice on HCD. Histology of HCD-fed livers showed hepatic steatosis in WT mice but not in LXRαβ(-/-) mice. Glucose tolerance was not different between groups, but insulin sensitivity was decreased by the HCD in WT but not in LXRαβ(-/-) mice. Finally, gene expression analysis of adipose tissue showed induced expression of genes involved in DNL in LXRαβ(-/-) mice compared with WT animals as opposed to the liver, where expression of DNL genes was repressed in LXRαβ(-/-) mice. We thus conclude that absence of LXRs stimulates DNL in adipose tissue, but suppresses DNL in the liver, demonstrating opposite roles of LXR in DNL regulation in these two tissues. These results show tissue-specific regulation of LXR activity, a crucial finding for drug development.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 04/2011; 301(1):E210-22. · 4.51 Impact Factor