Excessive costs of COPD in ever-smokers. A longitudinal community study
ABSTRACT We aimed to estimate the societal treatment-related costs of COPD in hospital- and population-based subjects with spirometry defined COPD, relative to a control group.
81 COPD cases and 132 controls without COPD were randomly recruited from a general population, as were 205 COPD patients from a hospital register. All participants were ever-smokers of at least 40 years of age, followed for 12 months. Data on comorbid conditions and spirometry were collected at baseline. Standardized telephone interviews every third month gave information on use of healthcare services and exacerbations of respiratory symptoms.
The increased (excessive) median annual costs per case having stage II, stage III and stage IV COPD were € (95% CI) 400 (105-695), 1918 (1268-2569) and 1870 (1031-2709), respectively, compared to the population-based controls. Costs increased with €81 (95% CI 50-112) per exacerbation of respiratory symptoms and €461 (95% CI 354-567) per comorbid condition. Excessive costs for hospital COPD patients were threefold that of the population-based COPD cases.
The excessive treatment-related cost of COPD stage II+ in ever-smokers of at least 40 years was estimated to €105 million for Norway. Comorbidity was a dominant predictor of excessive cost in COPD.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess relationships of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) comorbidities number, with the duration of hospital stay due to acute AE COPD in longitudinal prospective study. We evaluated the number of re-hospitalizations, length of stay and number of comorbidities in 464 consecutive COPD patients admitted to the tertiary respiratory hospital due to AE COPD enrolled in longitudinal prospective study from 2005 to 2009 year. GOLD II stage COPD patients had 4.1 ± 1.2 comorbidities (p = 0.002), stage III 3.4 ± 1.3 and stage IV had 3.6 ± 1.2 comorbidities. Duration of hospital stay (medians) was longer in more severe patients. Duration of hospitalization correlated with urea level (r = 0.19 p 〈 0.001), pCO(2) (r = 0.193, p = 0.0003), HCO(3) (r = 0.25, p 〈 0.0001), haemoglobin (r = -0.18, p 〈 0.001), and hematocrit (r = -0.13, p = 0.008). The patients with the risk of readmission had more severe GOLD stage and were hypercapnic (pCO(2) = 47.6 mmHg v. 43.9 mmHg in those without hospitalization). The haemoglobin level, hypercapnia and renal function are predictors of prolonged hospitalization. Patients with more severe airflow limitation and higher pCO(2) have increased risk for readmission to the hospital. More severe disease stage, clinical diagnosis of cor pulmonale or bronchiectasis was related to longer hospital stay.Pneumonologia i alergologia polska: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Ftyzjopneumonologicznego, Polskiego Towarzystwa Alergologicznego, i Instytutu Gruzlicy i Chorob Pluc 01/2011; 79(6):388-96.
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ABSTRACT: While it is known that severe COPD has substantial economic consequences, evidence on resource use and costs in mild disease is scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate excess costs of early stages of COPD. Using data from two population-based studies in Southern Germany, current GOLD criteria were applied to pre-bronchodilator spirometry for COPD diagnosis and staging in 2255 participants aged 41 to 89. Utilization of physician visits, hospital stays and medication was compared between participants with COPD stage I, stage II+ (II or higher) and controls. Costs per year were calculated by applying national unit costs. In controlling for confounders, two-part generalized regression analyses were used to account for the skewed distribution of costs and the high proportion of subjects without costs. Utilization in all categories was significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls. After adjusting for confounders, these differences remained present in physician visits and medication, but not in hospital days. Adjusted annual costs did not differ between stage I (€ 1830) and controls (€ 1822), but increased by about 54% to € 2812 in stage II+. The finding that utilization and costs are considerably higher in moderate but not in mild COPD highlights the economic importance of prevention and of interventions aiming at early diagnosis and delayed disease progression.Respiratory medicine 11/2011; 106(4):540-8. DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2011.10.013 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionAcute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a common cause of hospitalisation, and the readmission rate is high. We aimed to determine whether patients discharged from a pulmonary department (PD) after an AECOPD episode had a lower COPD-related readmission rate during the next 12 months than comparable patients discharged from other internal medicine departments (ODs). Methods The medical records of 566 patients discharged after an episode of AECOPD between March 2006 and December 2008 at Oslo University Hospital, Aker, were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic and medical data, together with number of readmissions because of AECOPD during 12 months following the index admission were extracted. We matched patients discharged from the PD and the ODs using a propensity score and used the paired t-test to compare COPD-related readmission rates between the matched patients. ResultsIn total, 481 patients were included in the analysis, 247 patients discharged from the PD and 234 from ODs. The propensity score matching process resulted in 155 well-matched pairs. The mean (standard deviation) number of readmissions within 1 year was 0.8 (1.3) for the PD versus 1.1 (1.9) for ODs (P=0.09). After adjusting for exposure time, the corresponding readmission rates were 1.1 (2.3) and 1.6 (4.0) per year, respectively (P=0.17). Conclusion There was little difference in COPD-related readmission rates between comparable patients discharged from the PD and the ODs after an AECOPD during 1 year following the index admission.The Clinical Respiratory Journal 01/2013; 7(4). DOI:10.1111/crj.12018 · 2.20 Impact Factor