Distributive Politics and Economic Growth

C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers, CEPR Discussion Papers 01/1991;
Source: RePEc

ABSTRACT This paper provides a survey on studies that analyze the macroeconomic effects of intellectual property rights (IPR). The first part of this paper introduces different patent policy instruments and reviews their effects on R&D and economic growth. This part also discusses the distortionary effects and distributional consequences of IPR protection as well as empirical evidence on the effects of patent rights. Then, the second part considers the international aspects of IPR protection. In summary, this paper draws the following conclusions from the literature. Firstly, different patent policy instruments have different effects on R&D and growth. Secondly, there is empirical evidence supporting a positive relationship between IPR protection and innovation, but the evidence is stronger for developed countries than for developing countries. Thirdly, the optimal level of IPR protection should tradeoff the social benefits of enhanced innovation against the social costs of multiple distortions and income inequality. Finally, in an open economy, achieving the globally optimal level of protection requires an international coordination (rather than the harmonization) of IPR protection.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: short review of the theoretical and empirical effects of inequality on growth
    The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality, Edited by Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan, Timothy M. Smeeding, 01/2009: chapter Inequality and economic growth: pages 549-574; Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We study the impact of gender quotas on the acquisition of human capital. We assume that individuals’ formation of human capital is influenced by the prospect of landing high-pay top positions, and that these positions are regulated by gender-specific quotas. In the absence of quotas, women consider their chances of getting top positions to be lower than men's. The lure of top positions induces even men of relatively low ability to engage in human capital formation, whereas women of relatively high ability do not expect to get top positions and do not therefore engage in human capital formation. Gender quotas discourage men who are less efficient in forming human capital, and encourage women who are more efficient in forming human capital. We provide a condition under which the net result of the institution of gender quotas is an increase in human capital in the economy as a whole.
    Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 09/2014; 105:173–177. · 1.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rice is an economically important food security crop, cultivated in almost all of Nigeria’s 36 States. Nigeria spends more than 356 billion naira (2.24 billion US dollars) annually on rice import. This paper set out to analyze the trend in rice production, productivity, import, value of import and consumption that follows the adoption of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in Nigeria, with emphasis on the effects of exchange rate (ER) deregulation on domestic rice production and rice imports over the period 1986-2010. Relevant time series data were collected and used. A semi-log growth rate model and 2simple linear regression models were developed and estimated. Highlights of the findings include (i) accelerated rate of growth in rice production (Instantaneous Growth Rate (IGR) 2.2%; Cumulative Growth Rate (CGR) 2.2%); rice hectarage (IGR 3.7%; CGR 3.8%); rice importation (IGR 8.5%; CGR8.9%); expenditure on rice importation (IGR 10.6%; CGR 11.2%) and rice consumption (IGR 3.4%; CGR 3.5%) alongside a significant deceleration in rice yield (IGR -1.4%; CGR -201.4%) (ii) The observed significant increase in domestic rice production cannot be confidently attributed to ER deregulation alone because it does not lead to a decrease in rice importation into Nigeria. (iii) The significant increase in domestic rice importation as observed contradicts a priori expectation that ER deregulation will lead to significant decrease in rice importation. The study concluded that free market approach alone cannot stimulate local agricultural production in countries where farmers producing under low-technology-agriculture are put in direct competition with farmers from advanced-technology-agriculture; hence governments need to restrict importation to protect local producers.
    International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics. 10/2013; 1(2):85-98.


Available from