Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Health: Paradigm Paralysis or Paradigm Shift?

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.
Diabetes (Impact Factor: 8.1). 11/2010; 59(11):2717-25. DOI: 10.2337/db10-0822
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Available from: Peter Katzmarzyk, Apr 13, 2015
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    • "A study by Biddle, Pearson, Ross, and Braithwaite (2010) found that sedentary behavior patterns established during childhood or adolescence often are followed into adulthood, and that this so-called tracking seems to be stronger for sedentary behavior than for PA. In adults, sedentary time has shown to be an independent risk factor for obesity and diabetes (Katzmarzyk, 2010). Sedentary time may as well have detrimental effect on children's health if the findings observed in adults are true for children (Healy et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Physical activity (PA) in childhood is related to a multitude of short- and long-term health consequences. School recess can contribute with up to 40% of the recommended 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This paper aims to investigate how schoolchildren use different schoolyard areas during recess and whether these areas are associated with different levels of PA. Time spent by 316 students (grade 5–8) in five types of schoolyard area was measured during at least two days and four separate recess period per person (in total 1784 recess periods), using global positioning system (GPS) and the level of activity was measured using accelerometers. Total time spent and proportions of time spent sedentary and in MVPA were calculated per area type. Significant differences in PA levels were found. Grass and playground areas had the highest proportion of time in MVPA and solid surface areas had the highest proportion of time spent sedentary. Boys and children spent a higher proportion of time in MVPA. Girls accumulated more sedentary time in all area types compared to boys. This finding emphasizes the importance of investigating various settings and features in schoolyards in promoting PA. Grass and playground areas may play an important role in promoting PA in schoolyards, while a high proportion of time in solid surface areas is spent sedentary. In future, more detailed studies of the exact schoolyard setting using a combination of GPS, accelerometer and direct observation would be beneficial.
    Landscape and Urban Planning 02/2015; 134. DOI:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.10.005 · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    • "However, recently a new paradigm in the physical activity field has emerged. [7] Many epidemiological studies have consistently shown that spending excessive time engaged in sedentary behaviors may have a negative impact on several health outcomes, independently of moderate to vigorous physical activity. [8], [9] Sedentary behavior is defined as time spent engaged in sitting or lying down activities that require an energy expenditure of 1.0 to 1.5 basal metabolic rates. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective 1) To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2) To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found. Methodology/Principal Findings Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase); PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic reviews with the best methodological quality, we found in children and adolescents, strong evidence of a relationship between time spent in sedentary behavior and obesity. Moreover, moderate evidence was observed for blood pressure and total cholesterol, self-esteem, social behavior problems, physical fitness and academic achievement. In adults, we found strong evidence of a relationship between sedentary behavior and all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is moderate evidence for incidence rates of ovarian, colon and endometrial cancers. Conclusions This overview based on the best available systematics reviews, shows that sedentary behavior may be an important determinant of health, independently of physical activity. However, the relationship is complex because it depends on the type of sedentary behavior and the age group studied. The relationship between sedentary behavior and many health outcomes remains uncertain; thus, further studies are warranted.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105620. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105620 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "However, in the last decade, sedentary behavior has emerged as a new risk factor for health [7-9]. Sedentary behaviors are characterized by any waking activity that requires an energy expenditure ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 basal metabolic rate and a sitting or reclining posture [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the last decade, sedentary behavior has emerged as a new risk factor for health. The elderly spend most of their awake time in sedentary activities. Despite this high exposure, the impact of this sedentary behavior on the health of this population has not yet been reviewed. We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between sedentary behavior and multiple health outcomes in adults over 60 years of age. We searched the Medline, Embase, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILLACS, and Sedentary Research Database for observational studies published up to May 2013. Additionally, we contacted members of the Sedentary Behaviour Research Network to identify articles that were potentially eligible. After inclusion, the methodological quality of the evidence was assessed in each study. We included 24 eligible articles in our systematic review, of which only 2 (8%) provided high-quality evidence. Greater sedentary time was related to an increased risk of all-cause mortality in the older adults. Some studies with a moderate quality of evidence indicated a relationship between sedentary behavior and metabolic syndrome, waist circumference, and overweightness/obesity. The findings for other outcomes such as mental health, renal cancer cells, and falls remain insufficient to draw conclusions. This systematic review supports the relationship between sedentary behavior and mortality in older adults. Additional studies with high methodological quality are still needed to develop informed guidelines for addressing sedentary behavior in older adults.
    BMC Public Health 04/2014; 14(1):333. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-333 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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