Colorectal carcinomas with microsatellite instability display a different pattern of target gene mutations according to large bowel site of origin
ABSTRACT Only a few studies have addressed the molecular pathways specifically involved in carcinogenesis of the distal colon and rectum. We aimed to identify potential differences among genetic alterations in distal colon and rectal carcinomas as compared to cancers arising elsewhere in the large bowel.
Constitutional and tumor DNA from a test series of 37 patients with rectal and 25 patients with sigmoid carcinomas, previously analyzed for microsatellite instability (MSI), was studied for BAX, IGF2R, TGFBR2, MSH3, and MSH6 microsatellite sequence alterations, BRAF and KRAS mutations, and MLH1 promoter methylation. The findings were then compared with those of an independent validation series consisting of 36 MSI-H carcinomas with origin from each of the large bowel regions. Immunohistochemical and germline mutation analyses of the mismatch repair system were performed when appropriate.
In the test series, IGFR2 and BAX mutations were present in one and two out of the six distal MSI-H carcinomas, respectively, and no mutations were detected in TGFBR2, MSH3, and MSH6. We confirmed these findings in the validation series, with TGFBR2 and MSH3 microsatellite mutations occurring less frequently in MSI-H rectal and sigmoid carcinomas than in MSI-H colon carcinomas elsewhere (P = 0.00005 and P = 0.0000005, respectively, when considering all MSI-carcinomas of both series). No MLH1 promoter methylation was observed in the MSI-H rectal and sigmoid carcinomas of both series, as compared to 53% found in MSI-H carcinomas from other locations (P = 0.004). KRAS and BRAF mutational frequencies were 19% and 43% in proximal carcinomas and 25% and 17% in rectal/sigmoid carcinomas, respectively.
The mechanism and the pattern of genetic changes driving MSI-H carcinogenesis in distal colon and rectum appears to differ from that occurring elsewhere in the colon and further investigation is warranted both in patients with sporadic or hereditary disease.
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ABSTRACT: Twenty percent of colon cancers present as an emergency. However, the association between emergency presentation and disease-free survival (DFS) remains uncertain. Consecutive patients who underwent elective (CC) and emergent (eCC) resection for colon cancer were included in the analysis. Survival outcomes were compared between the 2 groups in univariate/multivariate analyses. A total of 439 patients underwent colonic resection for colon cancer during the interval 2000-2010; 97 (22.1%) presented as an emergency. eCC tumors were more often located at the splenic flexure (P = 0.017) and descending colon (P = 0.004). The eCC group displayed features of more advanced disease with a higher proportion of T4 (P = 0.009), N2 tumors (P < 0.01) and lymphovascular invasion (P< 0.01). eCC was associated with adverse locoregional recurrence (P = 0.02) and adverse DFS (P < 0.01 ) on univariate analysis. eCC remained an independent predictor of adverse locoregional recurrence (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.50-3.30, P = 0.03) and DFS (HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.88-1.92, P = 0.05) on multivariate analysis. eCC was not associated with adverse overall survival and systemic recurrence. eCC is an independent predictor of adverse locoregional recurrence and DFS.International surgery 01/2015; 100(1):77-86. DOI:10.9738/INTSURG-D-13-00281.1 · 0.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Microsatellite instability (MSI) is an important factor in tumor development and is a hypermutable phenotype caused by the loss of DNA mismatch repair activity. It is important to identify tumors with microsatellite instability as the patients have a better prognosis and differ with response to chemotherapy. Limited data are available on the incidence of MSI in Indian colorectal cancers (CRCs). The objectives of this study were to identify the extent of MSI in Indian CRC patients below 50 years and to determine promoter methylation status of hMLH1 and hMSH2 in relation to MSI. A total of 450 patients were diagnosed with CRC, out of which 91 individuals were recruited as per Bethesda guidelines and were tested for instability by the NCI-recommended Bethesda panel (BAT25, BAT26, D2S123, D5S346, and D17S2720) using labeled primers. The fragments were separated and analyzed on a Beckman GeXP sequencer. Promoter methylation status was determined by restriction enzyme digestion and PCR. MSI (high and low) was seen in 48.4 % (44/91) of CRC patients, out of which microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) was detected in 13.2 % (12/91) and microsatellite instability-low (MSI-L) in 35.2 % (32/91) and the rest were microsatellite stable (MSS), 51.6 % (47/91). Majority of the MSI-H tumors were adenocarcinomas (10/12), in the rectum (8/12), and moderately or poorly differentiated (12/12). Promoter hypermethylation was seen in 75 % of the MSI-H, 56.24 % of MSI-L, and only 23.4 % of MSS individuals. MSI (high and low) was associated with 48.4 % of CRC patients, and a significantly higher proportion of promoter hypermethylation of hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes was associated with instable tumors.Tumor Biology 01/2014; DOI:10.1007/s13277-013-1570-9 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare, aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis, and the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in SBA remain unclear. Our aims were to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying SBA and to identify treatments by establishing and characterizing an SBA cell line and performing anti-cancer drug screening. SIAC1 cells, established from jejunal SBA, showed epithelial characteristics and formed organoids in 3D culture. SIAC1 cells had a heterozygous β-catenin deletion mutation, resulting in a stable β-catenin protein with enhanced Wnt/β-catenin activity. SIAC1 cells lacked MLH1 and MSH6 expression, and target genes such as TGFBR2 and ACVR2 showed frameshift mutations. Among 10 clinical SBA samples, 2 (20%) had N-terminal deletions in β-catenin, expression of mismatch repair protein was aberrant in 4 (40%), and heterozygous frameshift mutations of three target genes were found in all 10 samples. On screening assay using 140 compounds, eribulin significantly inhibited SIAC1 cell growth both in vitro and in vivo by inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway via enhanced degradation of β-catenin. In conclusion, we established an SBA cell line with molecular characteristics similar to those of clinical SBA samples, including β-catenin deletion and mismatch repair protein deficiency, that will be useful for SBA research. Eribulin might be a candidate for SBA treatment due to its inhibitory effect on Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.American Journal Of Pathology 12/2014; 185(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.10.006 · 4.60 Impact Factor