Biophysical properties and oxygenation potential of high-molecular-weight glutaraldehyde-polymerized human hemoglobins maintained in the tense and relaxed quaternary states.
ABSTRACT Recent clinical evaluation of commercial glutaraldehyde-polymerized hemoglobins (PolyHbs) as transfusion solutions has demonstrated several adverse side effects. Chief among these is the hypertensive effect. Fortunately, previous studies have shown that the hypertensive effect can be attenuated by removing free hemoglobin (Hb) and low-molecular-weight (low-MW) PolyHbs from the PolyHb mixture. In this work, polymerized human Hb (PolyhHb) solutions were synthesized in two distinct quaternary states with high MW and subjected to extensive diafiltration to remove free Hb and low-MW PolyhHb components (<500 kDa). The resultant PolyhHb solutions possessed high MW, distinct quaternary state, distinct reactivities with O(2) and CO, similar NO deoxygenating rate constants, distinct autoxidation rate constants, high viscosity, and low colloid osmotic pressure. To preliminarily assess the ability of PolyhHb solutions to oxygenate surrounding tissues fed by a blood vessel, we evaluated the ability of PolyhHbs to transport O(2) to cultured hepatocytes in a mathematical model of a hollow fiber bioreactor. The structure of individual hollow fibers in the bioreactor is similar to that of a blood vessel and provides an easy way to assess the oxygenation potential of PolyhHbs without the need for expensive and time-consuming animal studies. It was observed that PolyhHbs with low O(2) affinities were more effective in oxygenating cultured hepatocytes inside the bioreactor than high O(2) affinity PolyhHbs. Taken together, our results show that it is possible to synthesize high-MW PolyhHbs with no free Hb and low-MW PolyhHb components that are capable of transporting O(2) to cultured cells/tissues.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Pedro Cabrales, Jun 17, 2015
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ABSTRACT: For many decades, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have been central in the development of resuscitation agents that might provide oxygen delivery in addition to simple volume expansion. Since 80% of the world population lives in areas where fresh blood products are not available, the application of these new solutions may prove to be highly beneficial (Kim and Greenburg 2006). Many improvements have been made to earlier generation HBOCs, but various concerns still remain, including coagulopathy, nitric oxide scavenging, platelet interference and decreased calcium concentration secondary to volume expansion (Jahr et al. 2013). This review will summarize the current challenges faced in developing HBOCs that may be used clinically, in order to guide future research efforts in the field.12/2014; 5(4):288-95. DOI:10.3390/jfb5040288
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ABSTRACT: Bovine hemoglobin microparticles (Hb-MPs) as suitable oxygen carriers are fabricated easily by three key steps: coprecipitation of Hb and CaCO(3) to make Hb-CaCO(3)-microparticles (Hb-CaCO(3)-MPs), cross-linking by glutaraldehyde (GA) to polymerize the Hb and dissolution of CaCO(3) template to obtain pure Hb-MPs. The Hb entrapment efficiency ranged from 8 to 50% corresponding to a hemoglobin quantity per Hb-MP of at least one-third of that in one erythrocyte. The Hb-MPs are spherical, with an average diameter of 3.2 μm and high oxygen affinity. The methemoglobin level was increased after preparation, but can be reduced to less than 7% with ascorbic acid. Phagocytosis assays showed low immunogenicity of Hb-MPs if the particles were cross-linked with low concentration of GA and treated with sodium borohydride. Magnetite-loaded Hb-MPs circulated up to 4 days after intravenous application.Biomacromolecules 09/2012; 13(10):3292-300. DOI:10.1021/bm301085x · 5.79 Impact Factor