Article

Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Inhibition in Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 10/2010; 363(18):1693-703. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1006448
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Oncogenic fusion genes consisting of EML4 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) are present in a subgroup of non-small-cell lung cancers, representing 2 to 7% of such tumors. We explored the therapeutic efficacy of inhibiting ALK in such tumors in an early-phase clinical trial of crizotinib (PF-02341066), an orally available small-molecule inhibitor of the ALK tyrosine kinase.
After screening tumor samples from approximately 1500 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer for the presence of ALK rearrangements, we identified 82 patients with advanced ALK-positive disease who were eligible for the clinical trial. Most of the patients had received previous treatment. These patients were enrolled in an expanded cohort study instituted after phase 1 dose escalation had established a recommended crizotinib dose of 250 mg twice daily in 28-day cycles. Patients were assessed for adverse events and response to therapy.
Patients with ALK rearrangements tended to be younger than those without the rearrangements, and most of the patients had little or no exposure to tobacco and had adenocarcinomas. At a mean treatment duration of 6.4 months, the overall response rate was 57% (47 of 82 patients, with 46 confirmed partial responses and 1 confirmed complete response); 27 patients (33%) had stable disease. A total of 63 of 82 patients (77%) were continuing to receive crizotinib at the time of data cutoff, and the estimated probability of 6-month progression-free survival was 72%, with no median for the study reached. The drug resulted in grade 1 or 2 (mild) gastrointestinal side effects.
The inhibition of ALK in lung tumors with the ALK rearrangement resulted in tumor shrinkage or stable disease in most patients. (Funded by Pfizer and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00585195.).

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    • "With ALK gene rearrangement, the signals move apart from each other to give the split signal, which is considered positive. We scored a total of 50 to 80 tumor cells per specimens and presence of at least 15% of cells showing separated 3'ALK and 5'ALK signals or single 3'ALK signals classified the specimen as positive for ALK rearrangement [Kwak et al. 2010]. "
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    ABSTRACT: ALK-EML4 translocation is an established driver aberration in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with reported predilection for cases with signet ring histology. We assessed the presence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements in signet ring cancers arising in the stomach and colon. Histologically confirmed cases of signet ring adenocarcinoma of the stomach or the colon were identified. The presence of the classic ALK and EML4 fusion gene was initially determined by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed using two previously validated antibodies, ALK1 clone (1:100; DAKO) and 5A4 (Novocastra, Leica Biosystems) along with positive controls of ALK-translocated lung cancer. We employed 42 cases of signet ring carcinoma diagnosed between 2001 and 2011; 25 gastric and 17 colon cancer. Median age 63.3 years; male/female 17/25; race, black 47.5%, white 47.5%, others, 5%; stage I, 21.4%; stage II, 31%; stage III, 26.2%; stage IV, 21.4%. One of 42 cases (2.3%) was positive for ALK translocation by FISH using the standard criteria of at least 15% positive cells for the break-apart signal (50-70 cells enumerated per case). Using a less restrictive cut-off of 10% positive cells, 7 cases (16%) were considered possibly positive. None of the 'possibly positive' cases was found to harbor ALK translocation by another molecular testing approach (IHC). IHC with two previously validated monoclonal antibodies showed 0 of 42 (0%) cases positive. ALK gene rearrangement is very rare in gastrointestinal cancers and enrichment strategy focusing on signet ring cell histology did not significantly improve the detection rate.
    03/2015; 7(2):56-62. DOI:10.1177/1758834014567117
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    • "2.3. Gastrointestinal toxicity Crizotinib-associated gastrointestinal toxicities include nausea (47–57%), vomiting (39–47%), diarrhea (41–60%), and constipation (28–42%) [4] [11] [12] [14] "
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    ABSTRACT: Within 4 years of the discovery of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the ALK inhibitor crizotinib gained US and European approval for the treatment of advanced ALK-positive NSCLC. This was due to the striking response data observed with crizotinib in phase I and II trials in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC, as well as the favorable tolerability and safety profile observed. Recently published phase III data established crizotinib as the new standard of care in the second-line setting for this NSCLC molecular subset. A consequence of such rapid approval, however, is the limited clinical experience and relative paucity of information concerning optimal therapy management. In this review, we discuss the development of crizotinib and the clinical relevance of its safety profile, examining crizotinib-associated adverse events in detail and making specific management recommendations. Crizotinib-associated adverse events were mostly mild to moderate in severity in clinical studies, and appropriate monitoring and supportive therapies are considered effective in avoiding the need for dose interruption or reduction in most cases. Therapy management of patients following disease progression on crizotinib is also discussed. Based on available clinical data, it is evident that patients may have prolonged benefit from crizotinib after Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors-defined disease progression, and crizotinib should be continued for as long as the patient derives benefit.
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    • "NSCLC can be molecularly characterized by the presence of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, which frequently determine the therapeutic approach to these tumors. Targeted therapies for tumors with EGFR mutations [4e6] and Alk-translocations [7] are available and new targets such as RET and ROS1 fusions, BRAF, and ERBB2, are rapidly emerging. Nonetheless, a large percentage of lung cancers are not driven by single oncogene mutations and improvements in better selection of standard chemotherapy drugs or the development of novel targeted approaches to overcome chemo-resistance are essential for patients with these tumors. "
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