The Qualities and Skills of Exemplary Pediatric Hospitalist Educators: A Qualitative Study
ABSTRACT To identify the qualities and skills of exemplary and ideal pediatric hospitalist educators.
The authors conducted a prospective, multi-institutional qualitative study from November 2008 through January 2009 in which they interviewed pediatric hospitalists who were identified as exemplary educators at three academic pediatric residency programs. They then conducted focus groups with residents and medical students who had recently worked with these hospitalists. Qualitative analysis was used to identify themes.
All six hospitalists identified as exemplary participated. Among invited learners, 14/18 residents (78%) and 16/18 medical students (89%) participated. Together, the participants contributed 266 comments, which the authors categorized into 36 themes within the four domains of teaching skills, personal qualities, patient care skills, and role modeling. New qualities and skills--including self-reflection/insight, encouraging autonomy, time management, knowledge acquisition, and systems knowledge--and differences in perceptions among hospitalists, residents, and students were identified. Differences between the qualities and skills of actual exemplary hospitalist educators and perceptions of those of an ideal hospitalist educator were also identified.
Pediatric hospitalists in academic residency programs have unique opportunities to significantly affect the education of medical students and residents. This study validates and expands on prior studies of the qualities and skills needed to be a successful hospitalist educator. Researchers and educators designing faculty development programs to train more successful hospitalist educators may wish to target these qualities and skills as well as the differences in medical student and resident needs.
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ABSTRACT: As the field of pediatric hospital medicine has evolved, pediatric hospitalists have become increasingly involved in medical student and resident education--providing direct education during clinical rotations, developing novel curricula to meet the demands of the new educational environment, occupying leadership roles in medical education, and more. The literature suggests that hospitalists possess the essential skills for teaching effectively, yet most hospitalists feel that additional training beyond residency is necessary to refine their knowledge and skills in education and in other essential domains. Several pediatric hospital medicine fellowships and continuing medical education activities have been developed in the last decade to meet this growing need. The recent publication of the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Core Competencies will help define the roles and expectations of practicing pediatric hospitalists, and will serve as a framework for future curriculum development in both graduate and continuing medical education.Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care 05/2012; 42(5):120-6. DOI:10.1016/j.cppeds.2012.01.003 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exemplary teachers have been shown to use teaching scripts, ways of organizing the content and instructional approach for commonly encountered teachable moments. This study describes a busy hospitalist unit's early experience with the collaborative development of teaching scripts. In 2010, during monthly workshops, 10 faculty members each prepared and presented a teaching script for a different commonly encountered diagnosis. Open-ended surveys assessing the impact on faculty were analyzed using an iterative approach. Changes in faculty self-efficacy, and the frequency and applicability of teaching were measured. The program required 10 hours of attendance time and a mean of 4.3 hours for each faculty member who prepared a teaching script. No significant differences in quantity or applicability of teaching were detected, but faculty self-efficacy improved significantly. In addition, faculty described beneficial effects in their individual professional development, development of a shared mental model of professional responsibility, and interpersonal relationships. A majority of comments were positive; negative comments focused on the time required to prepare scripts, and apprehension about presenting to peers. The program was an efficient approach to improve self-rated teaching skills, enhance professional development, and build collegiality among clinician-teachers. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2012; © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.Journal of Hospital Medicine 10/2012; 7(8):644-8. DOI:10.1002/jhm.1971 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Medical trainees (interns and residents) and their clinical trainers need to be aware of the differences between positive and negative role modeling to ensure that trainees imitate and that trainers demonstrate the professional behavior required to provide high-quality patient care. The authors systematically reviewed the medical and medical education literature to identify the attributes that characterize clinical trainers as positive and negative role models for trainees. METHOD: The authors searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and PsycINFO databases from their earliest dates until May 2011. They included both quantitative and qualitative original studies, published in any language, on role modeling by clinical trainers for trainees in graduate medical education. They assessed the methodological quality of and extracted data from the included studies, using predefined forms. RESULTS: Seventeen articles met inclusion criteria. The authors divided attributes of role models into three categories: patient care qualities, teaching qualities, and personal qualities. Positive role models were frequently described as excellent clinicians who were invested in the doctor-patient relationship. They inspired and taught trainees while carrying out other tasks, were patient, and had integrity. These findings confirm the implicit nature of role modeling. Positive role models' appearance and scientific achievements were among their least important attributes. Negative role models were described as uncaring toward patients, unsupportive of trainees, cynical, and impatient. CONCLUSIONS: The identified attributes may help trainees recognize which aspects of the clinical trainer's professional behavior to imitate, by adding the important step of apperception to the process of learning professional competencies through observation.Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 11/2012; 88(1). DOI:10.1097/ACM.0b013e318276d070 · 3.47 Impact Factor