Adiponectin protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy by anti-apoptotic effects through AMPK up-regulation.
ABSTRACT Adiponectin (APN) has been reported to protect against ischaemia-reperfusion injury and hypertrophy. However, few reports have investigated the cardioprotective effects of APN in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy; therefore, we studied the cardioprotective mechanisms of APN in this model.
In an in vivo study, we quantified the cardiac pathohistology of C57BL/6 mice [wild-type (WT) mice], APN transgenic mice with high APN concentrations [APN transgenic sense (SE) mice], and those with reduced APN concentrations [APN transgenic antisense (AS) mice] after intraperitoneal injections of DOX (4 mg/kg) weekly for 6 weeks. The survival rate after 14 days was significantly increased in APN-SE mice (WT vs. APN-AS vs. APN-SE: 40 vs. 17 vs. 73%, P < 0.05). We assessed myocardial pathohistological changes and observed that fibrosis and apoptosis were significantly decreased in APN-SE mice compared with those of the other groups. We also assessed DOX-induced apoptotic mechanisms in vitro using cultured cardiomyocytes isolated from neonatal WT mice. The expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 increased, but that of pro-apoptotic factor Bax decreased in cardiomyocytes treated with highly concentrated APN. The protective effects of APN were reversed by the addition of an AMPK inhibitor (dorsomorphin) to the culture medium.
These data suggest that APN improved cardiac function through anti-apoptotic effects by up-regulation of AMPK in DOX-induced cardiomyopathy in mice.
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ABSTRACT: The global epidemic of obesity is accompanied by an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), in particular stroke and heart attack. Dysfunctional adipose tissue links obesity to CVD by secreting a multitude of bioactive lipids and pro-inflammatory factors (adipokines) with detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Adiponectin is one of the few adipokines that possesses multiple salutary effects on insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular health. Clinical investigations have identified adiponectin deficiency (hypoadiponectinaemia) as an independent risk factor for CVD. In animals, elevation of plasma adiponectin by either pharmacological or genetic approaches alleviates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, and also prevents atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, many therapeutic benefits of the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma agonists, the thiazolidinediones, are mediated by induction of adiponectin. Adiponectin protects cardiovascular health through its vasodilator, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities in both cardiac and vascular cells. This review summarizes recent findings in the understanding of the physiological role and clinical relevance of adiponectin in cardiovascular health, and in the identification of the receptor and postreceptor signalling events that mediate the cardiovascular actions of adiponectin. It also discusses adiponectin-targeted drug discovery strategies for treating obesity, diabetes and CVD. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-3.British Journal of Pharmacology 04/2011; 165(3):574-90. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01395.x · 4.99 Impact Factor
- Cardiovascular Research 02/2011; 89(2):262-4. DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvq393 · 5.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is an important remodeling event contributing to heart failure and adiponectin may mediate cardioprotective effects at least in part via attenuating apoptosis. Here we used hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells to examine the effect of adiponectin and cellular mechanisms of action. We first used TUNEL labeling in combination with laser scanning cytometry to demonstrate that adiponectin prevented H/R-induced DNA fragmentation. The anti-apoptotic effect of adiponectin was also verified via attenuation of H/R-induced phosphatidylserine exposure using annexin V binding. H/R-induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis as assessed by cytochrome c release into cytosol and caspase-3 activation, both of which were attenuated by adiponectin. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that adiponectin enhanced anti-oxidative potential in these cells which led to attenuation of the increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by H/R. To further address the mechanism of adiponctins anti-apoptotic effects we used siRNA to efficiently knockdown adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1) expression and found that this attenuated the protective effects of adiponectin on ROS production and caspase 3 activity. Knockdown of APPL1, an important intracellular binding partner for AdipoR, also significantly reduced the ability of adiponectin to prevent H/R-induced ROS generation and caspase 3 activity. In summary, H/R-induced ROS generation and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was prevented by adiponectin via AdipoR1/APPL1 signaling and increased anti-oxidant potential.PLoS ONE 04/2011; 6(4):e19143. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0019143 · 3.53 Impact Factor