Rubicon controls endosome maturation as a Rab7 effector.

Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 10/2010; 107(45):19338-43. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1010554107
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The activation and recruitment of the small GTPase Rab7 to early endosome is a critical step for early to late endosome maturation, a process that requires the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3KC3) and GTPase regulators. However, the molecular mechanism underlying Rab7 activation and endosome maturation is still poorly defined. Here we report that Rubicon, a component of the PI3KC3 complex, prevents endosome maturation through differential interactions with Rab7 and UVRAG. UVRAG activates PI3KC3 and C-VPS/HOPS, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP on Rab7. We demonstrate that Rubicon sequesters UVRAG from C-VPS/HOPS. Active GTP-bound Rab7 competes for Rubicon binding and releases UVRAG to associate with C-VPS/HOPS, which in turn promotes further loading of Rab7 with GTP. This feed-forward loop ensures rapid amplification of GTP-bound Rab7 and consequent stimulation of endosome maturation. Hence, Rubicon serves as a previously unknown Rab7 effector to ensure the proper progression of the endocytic pathway.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a catabolic degradation process in which cellular proteins and organelles are engulfed by double-membrane autophagosomes and degraded in lysosomes. Autophagy has emerged as a critical pathway in tumor development and cancer therapy, although its precise function remains a conundrum. The current consensus is that autophagy has a dual role in cancer. On the one hand, autophagy functions as a tumor suppressor mechanism by preventing the accumulation of damaged organelles and aggregated proteins. On the other hand, autophagy is a key cell survival mechanism for established tumors; therefore autophagy inhibition suppresses tumor progression. Here, we summarize recent progress on the role of autophagy in tumorigenesis and cancer therapy.
    02/2015; 7. DOI:10.12703/P7-18
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. This brain neuropathology is characterized by a progressive synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss, which lead to decline in memory and other cognitive functions. Histopathologically, AD manifests via synaptic abnormalities, neuronal degeneration as well as the deposition of extracellular amyloid plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. While the exact pathogenic contribution of these two AD hallmarks and their abundant constituents [aggregation-prone amyloid β (Aβ) peptide species and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, respectively] remain debated, a growing body of evidence suggests that their development may be paralleled or even preceded by the alterations/dysfunctions in the endolysosomal and the autophagic system. In AD-affected neurons, abnormalities in these cellular pathways are readily observed already at early stages of disease development, and even though many studies agree that defective lysosomal degradation may relate to or even underlie some of these deficits, specific upstream molecular defects are still deliberated. In this review we summarize various pathogenic events that may lead to these cellular abnormalities, in light of our current understanding of molecular mechanisms that govern AD progression. In addition, we also highlight the increasing evidence supporting mutual functional dependence of the endolysosomal trafficking and autophagy, in particular focusing on those molecules and processes which may be of significance to AD.
    Acta Neuropathologica 01/2015; 129(3). DOI:10.1007/s00401-014-1379-7 · 9.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces autophagy to enhance its replication. However, how HCV regulates the autophagic pathway remains largely unclear. In this report, we demonstrated that HCV infection could induce the expression of Rubicon and UVRAG, which inhibited and stimulated the maturation of autophagosomes, respectively. The induction of Rubicon by HCV was prompt whereas the induction of UVRAG was delayed, resulting in the accumulation of autophagosomes in the early time points of viral infection. The role of Rubicon in inhibiting the maturation of autophagosomes in HCV-infected cells was confirmed by siRNA knockdown and the over-expression of Rubicon, which enhanced and suppressed the maturation of autophagosomes, respectively. Rubicon played a positive role in HCV replication, as the suppression of its expression reduced HCV replication and its over-expression enhanced HCV replication. In contrast, the over-expression of UVRAG facilitated the maturation of autophagosomes and suppressed HCV replication. The HCV subgenomic RNA replicon, which expressed only the nonstructural proteins, could also induce the expression of Rubicon and the accumulation of autophagosomes. Further analysis indicated that the HCV NS4B protein was sufficient to induce Rubicon and autophagosomes. Our results thus indicated that HCV, by differentially inducing the expression of Rubicon and UVRAG, temporally regulated the autophagic flux to enhance its replication.
    PLoS Pathogens 03/2015; 11(3): e1004764. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004764(3). DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004764 · 8.14 Impact Factor


1 Download
Available from