Article

Airway Peroxidases Catalyze Nitration of the beta(2)-Agonist Salbutamol and Decrease Its Pharmacological Activity

Department of Internal Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0557, USA.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 3.89). 10/2010; 336(2):440-9. DOI: 10.1124/jpet.110.170027
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT β(2)-agonists are the most effective bronchodilators for the rapid relief of asthma symptoms, but for unclear reasons, their effectiveness may be decreased during severe exacerbations. Because peroxidase activity and nitrogen oxides are increased in the asthmatic airway, we examined whether salbutamol, a clinically important β(2)-agonist, is subject to potentially inactivating nitration. When salbutamol was exposed to myeloperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase or lactoperoxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and nitrite (NO(2)(-)), both absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry indicated formation of a new metabolite with features expected for the nitrated drug. The new metabolites showed an absorption maximum at 410 nm and pK(a) of 6.6 of the phenolic hydroxyl group. In addition to nitrosalbutamol (m/z 285.14), a salbutamol-derived nitrophenol, formed by elimination of the formaldehyde group, was detected (m/z 255.13) by mass spectrometry. It is noteworthy that the latter metabolite was detected in exhaled breath condensates of asthma patients receiving salbutamol but not in unexposed control subjects, indicating the potential for β(2)-agonist nitration to occur in the inflamed airway in vivo. Salbutamol nitration was inhibited in vitro by ascorbate, thiocyanate, and the pharmacological agents methimazole and dapsone. The efficacy of inhibition depended on the nitrating system, with the lactoperoxidase/H(2)O(2)/NO(2)(-) being the most affected. Functionally, nitrated salbutamol showed decreased affinity for β(2)-adrenergic receptors and impaired cAMP synthesis in airway smooth muscle cells compared with the native drug. These results suggest that under inflammatory conditions associated with asthma, phenolic β(2)-agonists may be subject to peroxidase-catalyzed nitration that could potentially diminish their therapeutic efficacy.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
124 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Asthma is characterized by repeated episodes of airway obstruction and an ongoing cycle of airway inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by inflammatory cells in the lung play a key role in the pathogenesis as well as amplification of inflammation in asthmatic airways. Several enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants are available in the lung and systemic circulation to counteract ROS mediated damage on various biomolecules such as lipid membranes, proteins, and DNA; however during asthmatic inflammation these defenses are overwhelmed due to excessive production of ROS thereby leading to inflammatory events in the airways/systemic circulation. ROS-mediated damage may result in increased vascular permeability, mucus hyper secretion, smooth muscle contraction, epithelial shedding and impairment in the responsiveness of β-adrenergic receptors. Strategies aimed to boost the endogenous antioxidants either through dietary or pharmacological intervention to redress oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in asthma is the current area of research in many laboratories throughout the world. This review aims at providing a comprehensive overview of the available literature on oxidative stress and antioxidants imbalance in asthma with a focus both on lung and blood components and bring forth correlations between lung/blood oxidative stress/antioxidant parameters and lung function.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2014.06.001 · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Five new phenethylamine (PEA) derivatives (1-5) were isolated from the strain of Arenibacter nanhaiticus sp. nov. NH36A(T) derived from the marine sediment of the South China Sea by bioassay-guided fractionation. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, HR-MS and NMR. Interestingly, compounds 1-4 existed as enantiomers, which were resolved by chiral liquid chromatography. The resolved configuration of each enantiomer was assigned by the Marfey's method. Of these compounds, 5 showed weak antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with MIC values of 0.50 and 0.25 mg ml(-1), respectively.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 17 July 2013; doi:10.1038/ja.2013.65.
    The Journal of Antibiotics 07/2013; 66(11). DOI:10.1038/ja.2013.65 · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The clinical management of allergic diseases involves a number of drugs, most of which are extensively metabolized. This review aims to analyze the metabolism and the clinical implications of altered metabolism for these drugs. Areas covered: The authors present an overview of current knowledge of the metabolism of: antihistamine drugs, glucocorticoids, inhaled β-2 bronchodilators, anticholinergics and other drugs used in allergic diseases, such as cromoglycate, omalizumab, montelukast and epinephrine. Polymorphic drug metabolism is relevant for chlorpheniramine, loratadine and montelukast. Inhibition of drug metabolism is relevant for loratadine, methylprednisolone, fluticasone, mometasone, triamcinolone or prednisolone. Polymorphic pre-systemic metabolism may be relevant to budesonide, fluticasone, beclomethasone, mometasone or salmeterol. The authors also discuss the current information on gene variations according to the 1,000 genomes catalog and other databases. Finally, the authors review the clinical implications of these variations with a particular regard to drugs used in the management of allergic diseases. Expert opinion: Most drugs used in allergic diseases are extensively metabolized. Drug interaction or adverse reactions related to altered metabolism are relevant issues that should be considered in the management of allergic diseases. However, much additional research is required before defining pharmacogenomic biomarkers for the management of drugs used in allergic diseases.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism &amp Toxicology 08/2013; DOI:10.1517/17425255.2013.823400 · 2.94 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
33 Downloads
Available from
Jun 5, 2014