Osmophobia in migraine classification: a multicentre study in juvenile patients.
ABSTRACT This study was planned to investigate the diagnostic utility of osmophobia as criterion for migraine without aura (MO) as proposed in the Appendix (A1.1) of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II, 2004).
We analysed 1020 patients presenting at 10 Italian juvenile headache centres, 622 affected by migraine (M) and 328 by tension-type headache (TTH); 70 were affected by headache not elsewhere classified (NEC) in ICHD-II. By using a semi-structured questionnaire, the prevalence of osmophobia was 26.9%, significantly higher in M than TTH patients (34.6% vs 14.3%).
Osmophobia was correlated with: (i) family history of M and osmophobia; and (ii) other accompanying symptoms of M. By applying these 'new' criteria, we found an agreement with the current criteria for the diagnosis of migraine without aura (MO) in 96.2% of cases; 54.3% of previously unclassifiable patients received a 'new' diagnosis.
In conclusion, this study demonstrates that this new approach, proposed in the Appendix (A1.1), appears easy to apply and should improve the diagnostic standard of ICHD-II in young patients too.
Article: Pediatric migraine.American Journal of Ophthalmology 07/1983; 95(6):844-5. · 3.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trigger factors, signs and symptoms of the preheadache phases of episodic tension-type headache (ETTH), typical aura with non-migraine headache (TANMH), migraine with (MA) and without aura (MwA) may show similar features. Our objective was to investigate the preheadache phases and trigger factors of these headache types. Questionnaires including trigger factors, signs and symptoms of preheadache phases were answered by all headache patients. A total of 96 patients, 31 ETTH, nine TANMH, 23 MA and 33 MwA patients were included in this study. Analysis of seven groups consisting of 18 individual trigger factors showed that only two groups and five individual trigger factors were significantly different between groups. Hunger and odour were significantly more common in MA, MwA and TANMH patients. Foods were a significant precipitant factor for headache in MA patients. Head and neck movements were important trigger factors in ETTH. In prodrome phase only one out of three groups differed significantly between headache types. Migraine and TANMH patients reported significantly more general signs and symptoms. Analysis of aura signs and symptoms showed that only two out of six groups were significantly more frequent in MA and TANMH patients. Visual aura symptoms were more frequent in MA and TANMH groups, where sensorial auras were reported to be the most frequent in the MA group. Our results showed that different type of headaches share common prodrome and aura signs and symptoms as well as the same trigger factors. We suggest that similar trigger factors may trigger similar mechanisms and may cause common preheadache signs and symptoms in all headache types.Cephalalgia 07/2005; 25(6):444-51. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In 2004, the revised International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) was published. This study evaluates: (1) the results obtained from applying ICHD-II to children with primary headaches to distinguish between migraine without aura (MO) and tension-type headache (TTH); and (2) the results obtained from introducing modifications of the classification criteria for MO as suggested by various authors. There were 200 participants (93 males, 107 females; age range 3-17 y, mean 9 y 8 mo [SD 2 y 7 mo]). According to the ICHD-II, MO compared with TTH was characterized by: higher intensity of pain; higher frequency of associated symptoms; and higher number of precipitating factors. The significant difference found between patients with MO/probable MO and those with TTH/probable TTH for the variables used in the ICHD-II shows that these variables describe the two forms well. However, 15.5% of children proved to be unclassifiable, mainly because they could not give information for some criteria; other reasons for this were too short a duration of episodes and the possible overlap of criteria describing probable MO and probable TTH. The frequency of one variable, pulsating pain, significantly increased with age. Reduction of duration to 1 hour for MO produced a statistically non-significant increase in the number of children with MO. Behaviour during attacks was found to be simple to apply in evaluating intensity and therefore was introduced as a new criterion. Severe intensity was related to MO, whereas moderate or low-intensity was related to TTH.Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 05/2008; 50(4):305-10. · 2.68 Impact Factor