Osmophobia in migraine classification: a multicentre study in juvenile patients.
ABSTRACT This study was planned to investigate the diagnostic utility of osmophobia as criterion for migraine without aura (MO) as proposed in the Appendix (A1.1) of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II, 2004).
We analysed 1020 patients presenting at 10 Italian juvenile headache centres, 622 affected by migraine (M) and 328 by tension-type headache (TTH); 70 were affected by headache not elsewhere classified (NEC) in ICHD-II. By using a semi-structured questionnaire, the prevalence of osmophobia was 26.9%, significantly higher in M than TTH patients (34.6% vs 14.3%).
Osmophobia was correlated with: (i) family history of M and osmophobia; and (ii) other accompanying symptoms of M. By applying these 'new' criteria, we found an agreement with the current criteria for the diagnosis of migraine without aura (MO) in 96.2% of cases; 54.3% of previously unclassifiable patients received a 'new' diagnosis.
In conclusion, this study demonstrates that this new approach, proposed in the Appendix (A1.1), appears easy to apply and should improve the diagnostic standard of ICHD-II in young patients too.
- SourceAvailable from: Raimundo Pereira Silva-Néto[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to determine the accuracy parameters of osmophobia in the differential diagnosis between migraine and tension-type headache. Migraine or tension-type headache patients, diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II, were interviewed about osmophobia during the crisis and in the period between episodes. We studied 200 migraine patients and 200 tension-type headache patients. During the crisis, osmophobia occurred in 86.0% (172/200) of patients with migraine and 6.0% (12/200) of those with tension-type headache. In migraine, osmophobia was associated with photophobia and phonophobia (57/172, 33.1%) or with nausea, photophobia and phonophobia (92/172, 53.5%) and presented high sensitivity (86.0%, 95% CI 80.2-90.3) and specificity (94.0%, 95% CI 89.5-96.7), with low percentages of false positives (6.5%, 95% CI 3.6-11.4) and negatives (13.0%, 95% CI 8.9-18.4). In the period between attacks, osmophobia was restricted to migraine patients (48/200, 24.0%). The areas under ROC curves were: 0.903 ± 0.017 to osmophobia during crisis; 0.784 ± 0.025 between crises; 0.807 ± 0.023 to photophobia/phonophobia, and 0.885 ± 0.017 to pain developed by odors. Osmophobia may be a specific marker to differentiate migraine from tension-type headache, which suggests its inclusion within the criteria to diagnose migraine.Journal of the neurological sciences 01/2014; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Migraine attacks consist of head pain and hypersensitivities to somatosensory, visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli. Investigating how the migraine brain simultaneously processes and responds to multiple incoming stimuli may yield insights into migraine pathophysiology and migraine symptoms. RECENT FINDINGS: The presence and intensity of hypersensitivity to one stimulus type are positively associated with the presence and intensity of hypersensitivities to other stimuli and to headache intensity. Furthermore, exposure to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli can trigger migraine attacks. These relationships suggest a role for multisensory integration in migraine. SUMMARY: Multisensory integration of somatosensory, visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli by the migraine brain may be an important concept for understanding migraine.Current opinion in neurology 04/2013; · 5.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Migraine is a common disorder and a frequent cause of medical consultation in children. Many childhood episodic syndromes have been described as common precursors of migraine. To review current knowledge on migraine and childhood episodic syndromes, and to discuss future directions for research and clinical practice. For most children it is difficult to describe a headache and fully verbalize symptoms such as photophobia and phonophobia that must be inferred from behaviour. Classical migraine features are rare before the age of 6 years, but some migraine-related syndromes have been described. Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy, benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood, cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are currently classified as childhood episodic syndromes, and therefore common precursors of migraine. A strong association between infantile colic and migraine has recently been reported. There are similarities between children with episodic syndromes and children with migraine, regarding social and demographic factors, precipitating and relieving factors, and accompanying gastrointestinal, neurologic, and vasomotor features. The real pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine are not fully understood. Current data obtained through molecular and functional studies provide a complex model in which vascular and neurologic events cooperate in the pathogenesis of migraine attacks. Genetic factors causing disturbances in neuronal ion channels, make a migraineur more sensitive to multiple trigger factors that activate the nociception cascade. The expanding knowledge on migraine genetics and pathophysiology may be applicable to childhood episodic syndromes. Migraine preventive strategies are particularly important in children, and could be beneficial in childhood episodic syndromes. Nonspecific analgesics like ibuprofen and acetaminophen are widely used in pediatrics to control pain and have been found to be effective also in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Triptans are the specific fist-line drugs for acute migraine treatment. Migraine phenotype differs somewhat in the developing brain, and childhood episodic syndromes may arise before typical migraine headache. Diagnosing pediatric migraine may be difficult because of children's language and cognitive abilities. The risk of underestimating migraine in pediatric age is high. An adequate diagnosis is important to maintain a good quality of life and to avoid inappropriate therapy.Italian journal of pediatrics. 01/2014; 40 Suppl 1:92.