Osmophobia in migraine classification: A multicentre study in juvenile patients
ABSTRACT This study was planned to investigate the diagnostic utility of osmophobia as criterion for migraine without aura (MO) as proposed in the Appendix (A1.1) of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II, 2004).
We analysed 1020 patients presenting at 10 Italian juvenile headache centres, 622 affected by migraine (M) and 328 by tension-type headache (TTH); 70 were affected by headache not elsewhere classified (NEC) in ICHD-II. By using a semi-structured questionnaire, the prevalence of osmophobia was 26.9%, significantly higher in M than TTH patients (34.6% vs 14.3%).
Osmophobia was correlated with: (i) family history of M and osmophobia; and (ii) other accompanying symptoms of M. By applying these 'new' criteria, we found an agreement with the current criteria for the diagnosis of migraine without aura (MO) in 96.2% of cases; 54.3% of previously unclassifiable patients received a 'new' diagnosis.
In conclusion, this study demonstrates that this new approach, proposed in the Appendix (A1.1), appears easy to apply and should improve the diagnostic standard of ICHD-II in young patients too.
SourceAvailable from: Aynur Ozge[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Exploring clinical characteristics and migraine covariates may be useful in the diagnosis of migraine without aura. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-III beta-based diagnosis of migraine without aura; to explore the covariates of possible migraine without aura using an analysis of grey zones in this area; and, finally, to make suggestions for the final version of the ICHD-III. METHODS: A total of 1365 patients (mean [± SD] age 38.5±10.4 years, 82.8% female) diagnosed with migraine without aura according to the criteria of the ICHD-III beta were included in the present tertiary care-based retrospective study. Patients meeting all of the criteria of the ICHD-III beta were classified as having full migraine without aura, while those who did not meet one, two or ≥3 of the diagnostic criteria were classified as zones I, II and III, respectively. The diagnostic value of the clinical characteristics and covariates of migraine were determined. RESULTS: Full migraine without aura was evident in 25.7% of the migraineurs. A higher likelihood of zone I classification was shown for an attack lasting 4 h to 72 h (OR 1.560; P=0.002), with pulsating quality (OR 4.096; P<0.001), concomitant nausea/vomiting (OR 2.300; P<0.001) and photophobia/phonophobia (OR 4.865; P<0.001). The first-rank determinants for full migraine without aura were sleep irregularities (OR 1.596; P=0.005) and periodic vomiting (OR 1.464; P=0.026). However, even if not mentioned in ICHD-III beta, the authors determined that motion sickness, abdominal pain or infantile colic attacks in childhood, associated dizziness and osmophobia have important diagnostic value. CONCLUSIONS: In cases that do not fulfill all of the diagnostic criteria although they are largely consistent with the characteristics of migraine in clinical terms, the authors believe that a history of infantile colic; periodic vomiting (but not periodic vomiting syndrome); recurrent abdominal pain; the presence of motion sickness or vertigo, dizziness or osmophobia accompanying the pain; and comorbid atopic disorder are characteristics that should to be discussed and considered as additional diagnostic criteria (covariates) in the preparation of the final version of ICHD-III.Pain research & management: the journal of the Canadian Pain Society = journal de la societe canadienne pour le traitement de la douleur 12/2014; 20(1). · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Migraine is a common disorder and a frequent cause of medical consultation in children. Many childhood episodic syndromes have been described as common precursors of migraine. To review current knowledge on migraine and childhood episodic syndromes, and to discuss future directions for research and clinical practice. For most children it is difficult to describe a headache and fully verbalize symptoms such as photophobia and phonophobia that must be inferred from behaviour. Classical migraine features are rare before the age of 6 years, but some migraine-related syndromes have been described. Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy, benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood, cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are currently classified as childhood episodic syndromes, and therefore common precursors of migraine. A strong association between infantile colic and migraine has recently been reported. There are similarities between children with episodic syndromes and children with migraine, regarding social and demographic factors, precipitating and relieving factors, and accompanying gastrointestinal, neurologic, and vasomotor features. The real pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine are not fully understood. Current data obtained through molecular and functional studies provide a complex model in which vascular and neurologic events cooperate in the pathogenesis of migraine attacks. Genetic factors causing disturbances in neuronal ion channels, make a migraineur more sensitive to multiple trigger factors that activate the nociception cascade. The expanding knowledge on migraine genetics and pathophysiology may be applicable to childhood episodic syndromes. Migraine preventive strategies are particularly important in children, and could be beneficial in childhood episodic syndromes. Nonspecific analgesics like ibuprofen and acetaminophen are widely used in pediatrics to control pain and have been found to be effective also in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Triptans are the specific fist-line drugs for acute migraine treatment. Migraine phenotype differs somewhat in the developing brain, and childhood episodic syndromes may arise before typical migraine headache. Diagnosing pediatric migraine may be difficult because of children's language and cognitive abilities. The risk of underestimating migraine in pediatric age is high. An adequate diagnosis is important to maintain a good quality of life and to avoid inappropriate therapy.Italian Journal of Pediatrics 12/2014; 40 Suppl 1(1):92. DOI:10.1186/s13052-014-0092-4
04/2015; 5(1-2):160-166. DOI:10.14740/jnr323w