Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure within the intracranial space. Intracranial hypotension is a clinical syndrome in which low cerebrospinal fluid volume (CSF) results in orthostatic headache. Severe cases can result in nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and, rarely, decreased level of consciousness and coma. CSF opening pressure can be within the normal range in spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Imaging tests therefore play a key and decisive role in the diagnosis, as well as treatment, of intracranial hypotension. Intracranial hypertension occurs in a chronic form known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension, as well as in a large variety of neurologic and systemic disorders. Symptoms include headache, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, and in severe cases, altered level of consciousness that can progress to coma and death. Direct measurements of CSF pressure through lumbar puncture (in idiopathic intracranial hypotension) or invasive ICP monitoring (in acute intracranial hypertension) are the key diagnostic tests. Imaging is used primarily to determine treatable causes of increased ICP, to assess for impending brain herniation, and to evaluate ventricular size.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of biomaterials, such as hydrogels, as neural cell delivery devices is becoming more common in areas of research such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. When reviewing the available research there is some ambiguity in the type of materials used and results are often at odds. This review aims to provide the neuroscience community who may not be familiar with fundamental concepts of hydrogel construction, with basic information that would pertain to neural tissue applications, and to describe the use of hydrogels as cell and drug delivery devices. We will illustrate some of the many tunable properties of hydrogels and the importance of these properties in obtaining reliable and consistent results. It is our hope that this review promotes creative ideas for ways that hydrogels could be adapted and employed for the treatment of a broad range of neurological disorders.
Neuroscience Research 12/2011; 72(3):199-213. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2011.12.005 · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unexplained SDH in infants and children is an accepted marker for AHT. It has been proposed that IVT may be the initiating event leading to the development of acute SDH, mimicking the appearance of traumatic SDH. Our study aims to investigate if nontraumatic IVT causes SDH in the pediatric population. We retrospectively identified 36 patients with IVT and reviewed neuroimaging studies for the concurrent presence of SDH. In our 36 patients with IVT, no associated SDH was observed. Even with extensive IVT, no SDH was present. Three false-positive diagnoses of IVT were identified in the setting of mastoiditis and traumatic SDH, demonstrating pitfalls in imaging. In conclusion, our findings do not support the previous AHT literature stating that IVT is associated with, or leads to, SDH in neonates, infants, or children.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 02/2012; 33(7):1281-4. DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A2967 · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have measured the forces that act on the electrode-bearing surface of an intradural neuromodulator designed to be in direct contact with the pial surface of the spinal cord, as part of our effort to develop a new method for treating intractable pain. The goal was to investigate the pressures produced by this device on the spinal cord and compare them with normal intrathecal pressure. For this purpose, we employed a dual-sensor arrangement that allowed us to measure the response of a custom-designed silicone spinal cord surrogate to the forces applied by the device. We found that the device had a mean compliance of ≈63 μN μm−1, and that over a 3 mm range of compression, the mid-span pressure it exerted on the spinal cord was ≈1.88 × 103 Pa = 14.1 mm Hg, which lies within the range of normal intrathecal pressure in humans.
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