The case for conservative management in the treatment of patients with non-muscle-invasive micropapillary bladder carcinoma without carcinoma in situ
Micropapillary carcinoma is a rare pathologic variant of urothelial cell carcinoma. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been reported to be ineffective and to entail an increased risk of development of non-organ-confined, metastatic disease. We assess the treatment response and disease progression in patients with micropapillary carcinoma of the bladder.
The study comprised 18 patients with micropapillary carcinoma of the bladder who underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor and multiple random biopsies between 1997 and 2003. We retrospectively analyzed treatment response and clinical and pathological cancer evolution related to cancer stage and the percentage of the micropapillary component of the cancer.
Seven of the 18 patients (38.8%) had carcinoma in situ. At diagnosis, 8 of the 18 patients had non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer; 6 of these patients were treated with intravesical BCG therapy and were alive and free of disease at a median follow up of more than 5 years. Ten of the 18 patients had muscle-invasive bladder cancer; 8 of these patients underwent radical cystectomy, and 7 of the 8 patients (87.5%) had non-organ-confined disease in cystectomy specimens. Seventy percent of patients with muscle-invasive disease at diagnosis had a micropapillary carcinoma component of more than 50% in transurethral resection of the bladder specimens, compared with only 25% of patients with non-muscle-invasive disease. Patients treated successfully with intravesical BCG therapy had a low micropapillary carcinoma component. The 5-year disease-specific survival rate was significantly lower in patients with muscle-invasive disease (30%) than in patients with non-muscle-invasive disease (87.5%) after a median follow up of 52 months (p = 0.001), and it was also significantly lower in patients with a high percentage of the micropapillary component of the carcinoma.
This retrospective study of 18 patients with micropapillary carcinoma of the bladder suggests that tumor stage and patient outcome may be related to the percentage of the micropapillary component of the carcinoma. Radical surgery is mandatory in muscle-invasive disease, even though patients with lymph node involvement die from the disease. In non-muscle-invasive disease and in the absence of associated carcinoma in situ, intravesical BCG treatment may be offered when the micropapillary component of the carcinoma component is a small percentage.
Available from: Lawrence C Jenkins
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ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: To present a summary of the 2nd International Consultation on Bladder Cancer recommendations on the pathology of bladder cancer using an evidence-based strategy. OBJECTIVE: To standardize descriptions of the diagnosis and reporting of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and help optimize uniformity between individual pathology practices and institutions. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A detailed Medline analysis was performed for original articles addressing bladder cancer with regard to pathology. Proceedings from the last 5 yr of major conferences were also searched. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The major findings are presented in an evidence-based fashion. Large retrospective and prospective data were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Providing the best management for patients with bladder neoplasia relies on close cooperation and teamwork among urologists, oncologists, radiologists, and pathologists.
European Urology 10/2012; 63(1). DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2012.09.063 · 13.94 Impact Factor
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Despite standard treatment with transurethral resection (TURBT) and adjuvant therapy, many bladder cancers (BCs) recur and some progress. Based on a review of the literature, we aimed to establish the optimal current approach for the early diagnosis and management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
A Medline® search was conducted to identify the published literature relating to early identification and treatment of NMIBC. Particular attention was paid to factors such as quality of TURBT, importance of second TUR, substaging, and carcinoma in situ. In addition, studies on urinary markers, photodynamic diagnosis, predictive clinical and molecular factors for recurrence and progression after BCG, and best management practice were analyzed.
Good quality of TUR and the implementation of photodynamic diagnosis in selected cases provide a more accurate diagnosis and reduce the risk of residual tumor in bladder cancer. Although insufficient evidence is available to warrant the use of new urinary molecular markers in isolation, their use in conjunction with cytology and cystoscopy can improve early diagnosis and follow-up. BCG plus maintenance for at least one year remains the standard adjuvant treatment in high-risk BC. Moreover, there is enough evidence to consider the implementation of new specific risk tables for patients treated with BCG.
In high-risk patients with poor prognostic factors after TUR, early cystectomy should be considered.
Minerva medica 06/2013; 104(3):273-86. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The clinical significance of variant histology is controversial and diagnosis is challenging. If variant architecture truly identifies high-risk patients, or those with a differential response to therapy, than treatment algorithms should be altered. This review outlines the current evidence and determines whether histologic variants should indeed alter definitive treatment.
For patients with pure squamous cell, adenocarcinoma, or small cell carcinoma, there is clear evidence to alter treatment paradigms. In adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, there is a focus on local control and multimodal therapy with radiation. In small cell carcinoma all stages should be treated with primary chemotherapy followed by surgical extirpation. For patients with other variants of urothelial differentiation (i.e., micropapillary, sarcomatoid, squamous/glandular differentiation, etc.), management guidelines are less clear and radical cystectomy remains the mainstay of treatment at this time.
The management of variant histology is challenging as it not only depends on accurate diagnosis and staging, but on assumptions regarding sensitivity to multimodal therapy (i.e., chemotherapy, radiation, intravesical agents) based on a handful of retrospective case series. This will need to be the focus of future studies and collaborative efforts in order to make significant advancements in the field.
Current opinion in urology 07/2013; 23(5). DOI:10.1097/MOU.0b013e328363e415 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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