Net energy of soybean oil and choice white grease in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs.
ABSTRACT The objectives of this experiment were 1) to determine the NE of soybean oil (SBO) and choice white grease (CWG) fed to growing and finishing pigs, 2) to evaluate the effects of inclusion rate of SBO on the NE by growing and finishing pigs, and 3) to determine if there is a difference in the NE of SBO and CWG between growing and finishing pigs. Forty-eight growing (initial BW: 22.13 ± 1.78 kg) and 48 finishing (initial BW: 84.17 ± 5.80 kg) barrows were used, and they were housed and fed individually. Within each stage of growth, pigs were allotted to 8 outcome groups of 6 barrows based on BW. Within each outcome group, pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 groups. Two groups at each stage of growth served as an initial slaughter group. Pigs in the remaining groups were assigned to 4 dietary treatments and slaughtered at the conclusion of the experiment. The basal diet contained corn, soybean meal, and no supplemental lipids. Three additional diets were formulated by mixing 95% of the basal diet and 5% SBO, 90% of the basal diet and 10% SBO, or 90% of the basal diet and 10% CWG. Average daily gain and G:F for finishing pigs and apparent total tract digestibility of energy for growing and finishing pigs increased (linear, P < 0.05) with lipid content, but was not affected by lipid source. The lipid gain:protein gain ratio and the energy retention also increased (linear, P ≤ 0.05) with lipid content in growing and finishing pigs. There were no interactive effects between lipid content and stage of growth or between lipid source and stage of growth on the NE of diets and the NE of dietary lipids. The NE of diets increased (linear, P < 0.01) with increasing SBO (2,056, 2,206, and 2,318 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 5, or 10% SBO). The NE of the diet containing 10% CWG (2,440 kcal/kg) was greater (P < 0.05) than the NE of the diet containing 10% SBO. The NE of diets was greater (P < 0.05) for finishing pigs than for growing pigs regardless of lipid content or source. The NE of SBO included at 5% (5,073 kcal/kg) was not different from the NE of SBO included at 10% (4,679 kcal/kg), but the NE of CWG (5,900 kcal/kg) was greater (P < 0.05) than the NE of SBO. The stage of growth had no impact on the NE of SBO or CWG. In conclusion, the NE of lipids is not affected by the content of dietary lipids, but the NE of CWG is greater than the NE of SBO.
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ABSTRACT: Background Conventional distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS-CV), uncooked distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS-BPX) and high-protein distillers dried grains (HP-DDG) are used in diets for pigs to provide protein and energy. These ingredients may have different effects on body composition and energy retention. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine effects of DDGS-CV, DDGS-BPX, and HP-DDG on body composition and on retention of protein, lipids, and energy when fed to growing or finishing pigs. ResultsThe total organ weight was greater (P < 0.05) for finishing pigs fed the HP-DDG diet than for finishing pigs fed the basal diet or the DDGS-CV diet. Finishing pigs fed the DDGS-CV diet had greater (P < 0.05) lipid gain than pigs fed the other diets, and the net energy (NE) for DDGS-CV was greater (P < 0.05) than for DDGS-BPX, but the NE value of HP-DDG was not different from that of DDGS-CV and DDGS-BPX. Conclusion Inclusion of up to 30% DDGS or HP-DDG in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs will not affect body composition or the retention of energy, protein, and lipids regardless of the stage of growth of pigs. The NE value of DDGS-BPX and HP-DDG is not affected by the stage of growth of pigs, but the NE value of DDGS-CV is greater in finishing than in growing pigs.Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 03/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The net energy (NE) content of canola meals (CM; i.e. Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow) in growing pigs was determined using an indirect calorimetry chamber or published prediction equations. The study was conducted as a completely randomized design (n = 6), with (i) a basal diet and (ii) 2 diets containing 700 g/kg of the basal diet and 300 g/kg of either of the two varieties of CM. A total of 18 growing barrows were housed in metabolism crates for the determination of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy. Thereafter, pigs were transferred to the indirect calorimetry chamber to determine heat production (HP). The NE contents of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow determined with the direct determination technique and prediction equations were 9.8 versus 10.3 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 10.2 versus 10.4 MJ/kg DM, respectively. Retained energy (RE) and fasting heat production (FHP) of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were 5.5 versus 5.7 MJ/kg and 4.3 versus 4.5 MJ/kg, respectively, when measured with the direct determination technique and prediction equations. The NE contents of Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were determined to be 8.8 and 9.8 MJ/kg DM, respectively, using the direct determination technique.Animal Science Journal 05/2014; · 1.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pigs require energy for maintenance and productive purposes, and an accurate amount of available energy in feeds should be provided according to their energy requirement. Available energy in feeds for pigs has been characterized as DE, ME, or NE by considering sequential energy losses during digestion and metabolism from GE in feeds. Among these energy values, the NE system has been recognized as providing energy values of ingredients and diets that most closely describes the available energy to animals because it takes the heat increment from digestive utilization and metabolism of feeds into account. However, NE values for diets and individual ingredients are moving targets, and therefore, none of the NE systems are able to accurately predict truly available energy in feeds. The DE or ME values for feeds are important for predicting NE values, but depend on the growth stage of pigs (i.e., BW) due to the different abilities of nutrient digestion, especially for dietary fiber. The NE values are also influenced by both environment that affects NE requirement for maintenance (NEm) and the growth stage of pigs that differs in nutrient utilization (i.e., protein vs. lipid synthesis) in the body. Therefore, the interaction among animals, environment, and feed characteristics should be taken into consideration for advancing feed energy evaluation. A more mechanistic approach has been adopted in Denmark as potential physiological energy (PPE) for feeds, which is based on the theoretical biochemical utilization of energy in feeds for pigs. The PPE values are, therefore, believed to be independent of animals and environment. This review provides an overview over current knowledge on energy utilization and energy evaluation systems in feeds for growing pigs.Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 09/2013; 26(9):1205-17. · 0.64 Impact Factor