Item and error analysis on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices in Williams Syndrome

School of Health and Social Sciences, Middlesex University, The Burroughs, Town Hall, Hendon NW4 4BT, UK.
Research in developmental disabilities (Impact Factor: 4.41). 10/2010; 32(1):93-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2010.09.005
Source: PubMed


Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) is a standardised test that is commonly used to obtain a non-verbal reasoning score for children. As the RCPM involves the matching of a target to a pattern it is also considered to be a visuo-spatial perception task. RCPM is therefore frequently used in studies in Williams Syndrome (WS), in order to match WS participants to a control group or as a single measure to predict performance on a test-condition in developmental trajectory analyses. However, little is known about the performance of participants with WS on the RCPM. The current study compared the type of errors and the difficulty of each item for 53 participants with WS to 53 typically developing children who were individually matched on the total raw score for RCPM. Results showed that the participants with WS made the same proportion of error types and that the proportion of error types changed similarly to those of typically developing controls over development. Furthermore, the differential item difficulty between the two groups was highly similar. It is therefore argued that, although participants with WS are delayed on RCPM, their performance is not atypical which suggests that RCPM performance is supported by typical mechanisms. The RCPM is therefore a useful tool to match WS to control groups or to construct developmental trajectories.

Download full-text


Available from: Emily Farran, Oct 10, 2015
32 Reads
  • Source
    • "They are given six options to complete the figure, only one of which is correct. Previous assays have shown that this is a well-grounded measure to use for matching individuals with WS to control groups (Van Herwegen et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Williams Syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of known genetic origin, characterized by serious delays in language onset yet relatively verbose, intelligible and fluent speech in late childhood and adulthood. How do motor abilities relate to language in this group? We investigated planning and co-ordination of the movement of the speech articulators (oromotor praxis) in 28 fluent-speaking individuals with WS, aged between 12 and 30 years. Results indicate that, despite their fluent language, oromotor praxis was impaired in WS relative to two groups of typically-developing children, matched on either vocabulary or visuospatial ability. These findings suggest that the ability to plan, co-ordinate and execute complex sensorimotor movements contribute to an explanation of the delay in expressive language early in development in this neurodevelopmental disorder. In the discussion, we turn to more general issues of how individual variation in oromotor praxis may account for differences in speech/language production abilities across developmental language disorders.
    Neuropsychologia 11/2014; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.11.032 · 3.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Spatial scores are derived from the Recall of Designs and Pattern Construction core scales. The Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) [37] was included as an additional measure of non-verbal ability as it has been established as a sensitive and reliable measure of non-verbal functioning in WS [38]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder arising from a hemizygotic deletion of approximately 27 genes on chromosome 7, at locus 7q11.23. WS is characterised by an uneven cognitive profile, with serious deficits in visuospatial tasks in comparison to relatively proficient performance in some other cognitive domains such as language and face processing. Individuals with partial genetic deletions within the WS critical region (WSCR) have provided insights into the contribution of specific genes to this complex phenotype. However, the combinatorial effects of different genes remain elusive. Methods We report on visuospatial cognition in two individuals with contrasting partial deletions in the WSCR: one female (HR), aged 11 years 9 months, with haploinsufficiency for 24 of the WS genes (up to GTF2IRD1), and one male (JB), aged 14 years 2 months, with the three most telomeric genes within the WSCR deleted, or partially deleted. Results Our in-depth phenotyping of the visuospatial domain from table-top psychometric, and small- and large-scale experimental tasks reveal a profile in HR in line with typically developing controls, albeit with some atypical features. These data are contrasted with patient JB's atypical profile of strengths and weaknesses across the visuospatial domain, as well as with more substantial visuospatial deficits in individuals with the full WS deletion. Conclusions Our findings point to the contribution of specific genes to spatial processing difficulties associated with WS, highlighting the multifaceted nature of spatial cognition and the divergent effects of genetic deletions within the WSCR on different components of visuospatial ability. The importance of general transcription factors at the telomeric end of the WSCR, and their combinatorial effects on the WS visuospatial phenotype are also discussed.
    Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 07/2014; 6(1). DOI:10.1186/1866-1955-6-18 · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "This scale is a visual test which involves matching a target to a pattern, assessing the ability for nonverbal and abstract (visuospatial) reasoning. The RCPM has been shown to be a reliable measure to assess nonverbal ability when matching WS participants to other groups (Van Herwegen, Farran & Annaz, 2011). The WS participants were matched to a nonverbal ability control group using raw scores rather than percentile norms to ensure a wide age range for matching criteria. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggest that individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, show specific weaknesses in visual attention and response inhibition within the visuospatial domain. Here we examine the extent to which impairments in attentional control extend to the visuomotor domain using a well-validated measure of choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) in individuals with WS. We examined the interaction between executive control and visually guided stepping using a verbal fluency dual-task or Go/NoGo paradigm during CSRT performance. Relationships between dual-task and inhibitory stepping and behavioural inattention and hyperactivity were also examined. Our results showed clear dual-task costs in stepping response times when performing a concurrent cognitive task in the WS group when compared to spatial and verbal ability matched typically developing controls. Although no group differences in stepping accuracy were observed between the WS and typically developing control groups, the WS group showed progressive slowing and more variable response times across the duration of the Go/NoGo task. These results suggest dysfunction in circuits involved in top-down attentional control processes in WS. These findings provide novel evidence that core executive control deficits in WS extend to the visuomotor domain, and impact on ADHD-related inattentive symptoms.
    Developmental Science 05/2013; 16(3):428-42. DOI:10.1111/desc.12042 · 3.89 Impact Factor
Show more