Substrate specificity of three recombinant α-L-arabinofuranosidases from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and their divergent action on arabinoxylan and arabinoxylan oligosaccharides.
ABSTRACT Bifidobacterium adolescentis possesses several arabinofuranosidases able to hydrolyze arabinoxylans (AX) and AX oligosaccharides (AXOS), the latter being bifidogenic carbohydrates with potential prebiotic properties. We characterized two new recombinant arabinofuranosidases, AbfA and AbfB, and AXH-d3, a previously studied arabinofuranosidase from B. adolescentis. AbfA belongs to glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 43 and removed arabinose from the C(O)2 and C(O)3 position of monosubstituted xylose residues. Furthermore, hydrolytic activity of AbfA was much larger towards substrates with a low amount of arabinose substitutions. AbfB from GH 51 only cleaved arabinoses on position C(O)3 of disubstituted xyloses, similar to GH 43 AXH-d3, making it to our knowledge, the first reported enzyme with this specificity in GH 51. AbfA acted synergistically with AbfB and AXH-d3. In combination with AXH-d3, it released 60% of arabinose from wheat AX. Together with recent studies on other AXOS degrading enzymes from B. adolescentis, these findings allowed us to postulate a mechanism for the uptake and hydrolysis of bifidogenic AXOS by this organism.
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ABSTRACT: Prebiotics are non-digestible substrates that stimulate the growth of beneficial microbial populations in the intestine, especially Bifidobacterium species. Among them, fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides are commonly used in the food industry, especially as a supplement for infant formulas. Mechanistic details on the enrichment of bifidobacteria by these prebiotics are important to understand the effects of these dietary interventions. In this study the consumption of galactooligosaccharides was studied for 22 isolates of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, one of the most representative species in the infant gut microbiota. In general all isolates showed a vigorous growth on these oligosaccharides, but consumption of larger galactooligosaccharides was variable. Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697 has five genes encoding β-galactosidases, and three of them were induced during bacterial growth on commercial galactooligosaccharides. Recombinant β-galactosidases from B. infantis ATCC 15697 displayed different preferences for β-galactosides such as 4' and 6'-galactobiose, and four β-galactosidases in this strain released monosaccharides from galactooligosaccharides. Finally, we determined the amounts of short chain fatty acids produced by strain ATCC 15697 after growth on different prebiotics. We observed that biomass and product yields of substrate were higher for lactose and galactooligosaccharides, but the amount of acids produced per cell was larger after growth on human milk oligosaccharides. These results provide a molecular basis for galactooligosaccharide consumption in B. infantis, and also represent evidence for physiological differences in the metabolism of prebiotics that might have a differential impact on the host.Food Microbiology 04/2013; 33(2):262-70. DOI:10.1016/j.fm.2012.10.003 · 3.37 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Floating-gate techniques for assessing mismatch[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: I discuss the importance of capacitor matching in the context of using charge stored on floating-gate MOS (FGMOS) transistors to compensate for transistor mismatch in analog circuits. I describe a simple technique that only involves static measurements for assessing the relative mismatch between capacitors. I also show experimental measurements of capacitor mismatch for small capacitors fabricated in 1.2-μm and 0.35-μm double-poly it n-well CMOS process that are commonly availableCircuits and Systems, 2000. Proceedings. ISCAS 2000 Geneva. The 2000 IEEE International Symposium on; 02/2000
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ABSTRACT: Xylooligosaccharides have strong bifidogenic properties and are increasingly used as a prebiotic. Nonetheless, little is known about the degradation of these substrates by bifidobacteria. We characterized two recombinant β-xylosidases, XylB and XylC, with different substrate specificities from Bifidobacterium adolescentis. XylB is a novel β-xylosidase that belongs to the recently introduced glycoside hydrolase family 120. In contrast to most reported β-xylosidases, it shows only weak activity on xylobiose and prefers xylooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization above two. The remaining xylobiose is efficiently hydrolyzed by the second B. adolescentis β-xylosidase, XylC, a glycoside hydrolase of family 43. Furthermore, XylB releases more xylose from arabinose-substituted xylooligosaccharides than XylC (30% and 20%, respectively). The different specificities of XylB, XylC, and the recently described reducing-end xylose-releasing exo-oligoxylanase RexA show how B. adolescentis can efficiently degrade prebiotic xylooligosaccharides.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 06/2011; 92(6):1179-85. DOI:10.1007/s00253-011-3396-y · 3.81 Impact Factor