Substrate specificity of three recombinant α-L-arabinofuranosidases from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and their divergent action on arabinoxylan and arabinoxylan oligosaccharides.
ABSTRACT Bifidobacterium adolescentis possesses several arabinofuranosidases able to hydrolyze arabinoxylans (AX) and AX oligosaccharides (AXOS), the latter being bifidogenic carbohydrates with potential prebiotic properties. We characterized two new recombinant arabinofuranosidases, AbfA and AbfB, and AXH-d3, a previously studied arabinofuranosidase from B. adolescentis. AbfA belongs to glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 43 and removed arabinose from the C(O)2 and C(O)3 position of monosubstituted xylose residues. Furthermore, hydrolytic activity of AbfA was much larger towards substrates with a low amount of arabinose substitutions. AbfB from GH 51 only cleaved arabinoses on position C(O)3 of disubstituted xyloses, similar to GH 43 AXH-d3, making it to our knowledge, the first reported enzyme with this specificity in GH 51. AbfA acted synergistically with AbfB and AXH-d3. In combination with AXH-d3, it released 60% of arabinose from wheat AX. Together with recent studies on other AXOS degrading enzymes from B. adolescentis, these findings allowed us to postulate a mechanism for the uptake and hydrolysis of bifidogenic AXOS by this organism.
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ABSTRACT: Studies of the visual capacity of neurological patients have provided evidence for a dissociation between the perceptual report of a visual stimulus and the ability to direct spatially accurate movements toward that stimulus. Some patients with damage to the parietal lobe, for example, are unable to reach accurately towards visual targets that they unequivocally report seeing. Conversely, some patients with extensive damage to primary visual cortex can make accurate pointing movements or saccades toward a stimulus presented in their 'blind' scotoma. But in investigations of visuomotor control in patients with visual disorders, little consideration has been given to complex acts such as manual prehension. Grasping a three-dimensional object requires knowledge not only of the object's spatial location, but also of its form, orientation and size. We have examined a patient with a profound disorder in the perception of such object qualities. Our quantitative analyses demonstrate strikingly accurate guidance of hand and finger movements directed at the very objects whose qualities she fails to perceive. These data suggest that the neural substrates for the visual perception of object qualities such as shape, orientation and size are distinct from those underlying the use of those qualities in the control of manual skills.Nature 02/1991; 349(6305):154-6. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Accumulating neuropsychological, electrophysiological and behavioural evidence suggests that the neural substrates of visual perception may be quite distinct from those underlying the visual control of actions. In other words, the set of object descriptions that permit identification and recognition may be computed independently of the set of descriptions that allow an observer to shape the hand appropriately to pick up an object. We propose that the ventral stream of projections from the striate cortex to the inferotemporal cortex plays the major role in the perceptual identification of objects, while the dorsal stream projecting from the striate cortex to the posterior parietal region mediates the required sensorimotor transformations for visually guided actions directed at such objects.Trends in Neurosciences 02/1992; 15(1):20-5. · 13.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Performance on some neuropsychological tests is best expressed as the slope of a regression line. Examples include the quantification of performance on tests designed to assess the accuracy of time estimation or distance estimation. The present paper presents methods for comparing a patient's performance with a control or normative sample when performance is expressed as slope. The methods test if there is a significant difference between a patient's slope and those obtained from controls, yield an estimate of the abnormality of the patient's slope, and provide confidence limits on the level of abnormality. The methods can be used with control samples of any size and will therefore be of particular relevance to single-case researchers. A method for comparing the difference between a patient's scores on two measures with the differences observed in controls is also described (one or both measures can be slopes). The methods require only summary statistics (rather than the raw data from the normative or control sample); it is hoped that this feature will encourage the development of norms for tasks that use slopes to quantify performance. Worked examples of the statistical methods are provided using neuropsychological data and a computer program (for PCs) that implements the methods is described and made available.Cortex 07/2004; 40(3):533-48. · 6.16 Impact Factor